The drug dicloxacillin is suitable for the treatment of a variety of infectious diseases. In the majority of cases, it is used in infections caused by pathogens of the staphylococcal type.
The drug dicloxacillin is especially effective for such germs that have already developed resistance to other substances from the group of penicillins. This applies, for example, to infections of the nipples, the bone marrow, the lungs and the ear, nose and throat area.
The drug dicloxacillin has the characteristic mechanism of action of all types of penicillins. Because the substance stops a special enzyme called transpeptidase, which is in the bacteria. This enzyme is imperative for the pathogens to build up the cell walls. Accordingly, it plays a significant role in both the regeneration and multiplication of bacterial cells.
Due to the blockade of the enzyme, crucial weak spots develop in the cell walls, which in the growth and propagation processes of the germs cause the cell walls of the bacteria to break down. As a result, the cell is no longer viable and the bacterium dies. For this reason, the drug Dicloxacillin has a bactericidal effect.
In principle, the drug dicloxacillin belongs to the subcategory of penicillin-resistant penicillins. Penicillinase is a special enzyme that is possessed by bacteria. These are thus able to affect the basic structure of penicillins. However, the active ingredient dicloxacillin is not sensitive to such attacks of the enzyme and thus remains unimpaired in its action. For this reason, the substance dicloxacillin also acts against some staphylococcal bacteria, which are already resistant to other types of penicillins.
As part of the inhibition of the bacterial enzyme transpeptidase, the new formation of the cell wall is no longer flawless. The resulting weak spots in the cell walls ultimately lead to the death of the germs.
The drug dicloxacillin shows good efficacy in a number of infections. It is particularly used in those infectious diseases in which staphylococci are the trigger and other penicillins due to resistance no longer show sufficient effect.
For example, it is possible to use dicloxacillin for infections of the bone marrow, kidneys, lungs and nipples. Even with bacterial diseases of the small and large intestine, the urinary tract and the head and neck area, the drug often has an effect.
In addition, a use of the drug is reduced in infections that affect the ear, nose and throat. In addition, the drug is also effective against abscesses and boils, pus, connective tissue inflammation and other skin infections. The substance is also sometimes used to fight infections that occur following surgical procedures.
In the majority of cases, the antibiotic dicloxacillin is administered orally in the form of tablets or intravenously. For the treatment of skin infections, ointments containing dicloxallicin are available.
As part of the therapy with dicloxacillin various undesirable side effects and complaints are possible, which occur with varying frequency. The most common side effects include indigestion, allergic reactions and intolerance to the active ingredient.
Occasionally it comes during the intake of the drug to increased liver enzymes, dryness in the mouth or catarrh on the oral mucosa. Inflammation of the tongue also occurs in some cases.
The rare side effects include, for example, the Lyell syndrome and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Inflammation of the kidney, general abnormalities of the blood picture, fever, swelling of the larynx and anaphylactic shock are also possible. In very rare cases, the administration of dicloxacillin causes biliary congestion, kidney dysfunction, or liver inflammation.
When taking dicloxacillin, various interactions with other drugs must be taken into account. In some cases, complications include the concomitant administration of other penicillins and the substance methotrexate. Because in this case, the effects reinforce each other.
If at the same time a live vaccination, the effect is sometimes reduced. In addition, the antibiotic dicloxacillin in many cases adversely affects the contraceptive effect of such contraceptives based on a combination of estrogen and progestin.
In principle, the use of the active substance dicloxacillin is contraindicated in some complaints, as in these cases, serious complications are possible. For example, in asthma, hay fever and leukemia therapy with dicloxacillin can be foreseen. Even with allergies to certain types of penicillins or cephalosporins must be dispensed with dicloxacillin.
If treatment with the antibiotic takes place during pregnancy or breast-feeding, strict medical supervision is required. In this case, the prescription of the substance should be weighed particularly carefully.