The drug abciximab was developed by the US pharmaceutical company Centocor as an effective means to prevent blood clotting. The product, which is used exclusively in clinical treatment, is used for surgical procedures on the arteries of the heart and for the prevention of heart attacks. The most common side effects include bleeding, which can occur up to 36 hours after initiation of therapy.

What is Abciximab?

Abciximab is an active ingredient primarily used in heart surgery.

Abciximab, also known as abximabum, is an active ingredient primarily used in heart surgery. He belongs therefore in the group of antiplatelet agents.

The basis of the preparation is an immunologically effective protein, which prevents the formation of blood clots. The clots can lead to a clumping of the blood and thereby clog the arteries and ultimately lead to heart attack.

To prevent clot formation, abciximab binds to various receptors on the red platelets. The active substance is used if complications regarding the circulation of the heart are feared during an intervention. In addition, the preparation is used in cardiac infarct prevention.

Pharmacological action

Blood clots are formed in the human body by the fact that the body's own proteins such as fibrinogen dock to the red blood cells. In a healthy body, this protein plays an important role: It promotes blood clotting and thus contributes to the rapid closure of a wound and wound healing.

In patients with circulatory disorders, this mechanism can lead to problems. Because the platelets connect with each other and can attach to the walls of the blood vessels. Abciximab prevents the protein from docking by docking itself to the glycoprotein IIb / IIIa receptors and preventing blood clotting for up to 24 hours. Because of this mode of action, abciximab is considered an antagonist.

These are substances that themselves have no pharmacological effect. By their presence, however, they inhibit other substances in the development of their effect. When abciximab is administered intravenously, it binds to the platelets within 10 to 30 minutes. The active ingredient is one of the fast-acting products.

Medical application & use

In cardiac surgery abciximab is used in procedures in which pathologically narrowed arteries are widened. This can be done by balloon dilatation or by atherectomy. Here, a balloon or a catheter is introduced into the artery.

Abciximab is given to prevent the platelets from attaching to the foreign body, causing the artery to become blocked. Abciximab is administered through at least 12-hour infusions. Therefore, the drug is used exclusively in clinics. Abciximab is often given in combination with other supplements that support the effect. Proven combinations are abciximab in combination with heparin or acetylsalicylic acid.

As a precaution, abciximab is used in patients who suffer from angina pectoris and are not otherwise treatable. The patients feel angrily pain in the chest. Triggers are circulatory disorders that are triggered by constrictions in the coronary arteries. The bottlenecks are the result of deposits on the blood vessels. Abciximab is designed to reduce the risk of these deposits dissolving and completely clogging the artery. The drug is used in cardiac infarction screening if the affected person does not respond to any other therapy.

Risks & Side Effects

Because abciximab prevents blood clotting, the product must not be given to patients with internal bleeding. Within the first 36 hours after initiation of therapy, bleeding often occurs.

Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, chest and back pain, slow heart rate, fever, and red blood cell count reduction. In rare cases allergic reactions, bleeding in the lungs, malfunction of the lungs or ingress of fluids into the pericardium may occur.

During pregnancy, the drug should only be given if it is necessary. It is not yet known if and how the drug affects the unborn child. Tags: 

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