Absorption in medicine is the uptake of a substance by the metabolism. An externally supplied drug is rarely fully absorbed. The absorption happens depending on the dosage form to different degrees.

What is the absorption?

Absorption in medicine is the uptake of a substance by the metabolism. Absorption usually occurs at the cellular level.

Active substances supplied to the body from outside are in most cases completely absorbed by the body. Instead, a certain amount of the substance is lost during recording. The portion that can be absorbed and utilized by the metabolism is referred to as absorbed or absorbed. Absorption is therefore the metabolic process, in which the body absorbs externally supplied active substances or also components of the food.

The absorption usually occurs at the cellular level, since individual molecules of the added chemical substance can be utilized as part of the cell metabolism.

The degree of possible absorption of a substance depends on its purity, its dosage form and, depending on the substance, also on the accompanying substances administered with it. For example, the absorption of some vitamins is higher when eating high-fat foods.

Relevance to medicine has the absorption in the dosage and administration of drugs and in the dietary supplement with trace elements such as vitamins or minerals.

Function & Task

Absorption is a natural process in the human body that primarily serves to absorb fine dissolved substances from food. At the cellular level, vitamins, minerals and other trace elements can be absorbed by the body to some extent. The sooner these substances meet the condition favorable for absorption, the more of them will be absorbed.

As the absorption in the diet works, it also goes with the administration of medication. These are also present in a composition that can be metabolized by the individual cell. The extent to which this happens depends on the production of medicines and the choice of the right dosage form.

Absorption without a pharmacological background thus has the initial task of supplying humans with micronutrients. Without the process of absorption, the body could not absorb it, but it needs it to build and maintain the body's substance.

In medicine, the absorption benefits the doctor in the dosage and administration of medication. For example, many medicines have the ability to be absorbed directly by injection to a much greater extent than if they are given orally.

The absorption can also have a protective function in addition to these functions. If, for example, a human consumes a rotten food, the cells usually take up toxins well in front of the nutritive components. The absorbed toxins in turn signal to the body that something is wrong with the food, so it can react quickly to vomiting or diarrhea. If absorption did not occur until later in the digestive process, there would already be so many toxins in the body that it would be difficult to eliminate them. On the other hand, the rapid absorption of dangerous warning substances causes the body to resist poisoning at an early stage and often be able to fight it without medical support.

In the case of less poisonous but nevertheless harmful substances, such as alcohol, which are usually also absorbed quickly, rapid absorption ensures a reaction of the body: the person becomes drunk and can even see where his limits lie.

Diseases & complaints

Absorption is a process that itself is very rarely affected by diseases. Some congenital metabolic diseases prevent the absorption of certain food constituents from birth or absorb them incorrectly. This in turn leads to some serious illnesses, as not all necessary physical processes work properly due to the faulty absorption.

For other hereditary diseases, however, the absorption can work very well, but the absorbed substance is not processed correctly thereafter. Therefore, it is important to choose foods that either do not contain the problematic ingredient or in forms that are difficult to resorb. The less that can be absorbed, the less symptoms of disease then arise.

Some medications for the treatment of such diseases in the absorption and try to prevent them. An example of this is lactose intolerance: drugs neutralize lactose in the diet so that it is not absorbed at all.

Disturbance of normal absorption of nutritional components and medications may be present in very lean or overweight people. Overweight or underweight mainly affects hormonal functions of the body, which can also affect the absorption. Underweight, for example, alcohol is absorbed very quickly.

In addition, the absorption may be difficult depending on the diet. If the food contains many industrially processed ingredients, it may be difficult for the body to absorb the few remaining vitamins and minerals. He slides into a malnutrition that can lead to deficiency symptoms, even if the amount of food would be sufficient only on the basis of calories.

Relatively frequent are disorders of absorption by the administration of highly effective drugs, especially chemotherapy. The body is thus so strongly influenced in its natural functions that it can not even absorb important nutritional components properly, so they must be administered in easily absorbable form.

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