What is Acromelalga syndrome?Toadstools are the cause of Acromelalga syndrome. So far, the poisoning was mainly associated with the fragrant funneling.
Acromelalga Syndrome is a fungus poisoning. In the Pacific, this phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century. Within Europe, only in the 21st century a noteworthy case became known. Patients' fingers, ears, toes and noses as well as the legs and arms cause considerable pain as part of intoxication. Several toadstools are now known as causes.
Overall, the syndrome occurs worldwide but only rarely. The first symptoms of intoxication come after a certain latency. Patients therefore do not always think in their medical history directly on the days previously consumed mushrooms, if they go on causal research. Within Europe, Acromelalga syndrome first appeared in France in 2001. As a rule, poisoning does not result in death and does not cause lasting damage.
Toadstools are the cause of Acromelalga syndrome. So far, the poisoning was mainly associated with the fragrant funnelling and the Japanese bamboo funeral. The fact that the consumption of other types of fungi can cause the syndrome, however, is not completely excluded. The substance Acromelsäure is contained in the fragrant funnelling, as well as in the Japanese tree funnelling.
This acid has been included in the name of the syndrome and plays an important role in intoxication. Therefore, all poisoning with acromelic acid-containing foods show about the same symptoms as the Acromelalga syndrome. Acromelic acid is a potent antagonist of glutamate, an antagonist of α-amino acids found in the human body. Especially in proteins α-amino acids are included.
As neurotransmitters, they have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. As antagonists of α-amino acids, they block their activity in the nervous system by binding to their receptors.
Symptoms, complaints & signs
In Acromelalga syndrome, patients complain of severe pain throughout the body. Especially the ears and nose as well as the arms and legs usually last long and strong. In addition to these pain symptoms, various neurological symptoms occur.
Since poisoning blocks the effectiveness of α-amino acids, various functions in the central nervous system are inhibited. The most important symptoms are, above all, paralysis and malaise or numbness of the arms and legs. In addition, it can lead to depression and heavy tiredness.
Sometimes swelling and dermatological abnormalities occur. Patients suffer from cramping and persistent insomnia, which is usually caused mainly by muscle aches. Heat can worsen the symptoms even more and let a numbness in the legs, for example, only lead to paralysis.
Diagnosis & History
The symptoms of Acromelalga syndrome occur one to two days or even a full week after the mushrooms are consumed. That makes the diagnosis difficult for the doctor. Fungal remains in the patient's vomit give him, at best, a first suspicion of fungal poisoning. The history can substantiate this suspicion. As a rule, the detection of acromelic acid in the organism of the patient is considered to be diagnostic.
This proof is provided by laboratory tests of the blood. Acromelalga syndrome is associated with a favorable prognosis. A fatal outcome or permanent damage is relatively unlikely. How long the patients are tormented by the symptoms depends on the individual case. The poisoning is rather tedious and can cause symptoms for weeks or even months.
If suspected wrong fungal consumption of the person concerned should go immediately in medical care. Acromelalga syndrome causes significant complications depending on the condition of the patient, but does not cause death. Trigger for intoxication are various toadstools. Those affected complain of severe pain on the extremities as well as on the nose and ears.
The skin can swell up, heat is not tolerated and violent muscle spasms and exhaustion conditions plague the body. Furthermore, numbness and paralysis in the arms and legs may occur. Especially with emotionally unstable patients, an existing depression can worsen.
In the worst case, the central nervous system fails because the functioning of α-amino acids is effectively blocked. This type of fungal poisoning leaves no damage to the organs, yet the affected person needs a certain time of recovery due to the severity of the disease. There is no antidote for Acromelalga syndrome.
As a medical emergency measure, the liquid intake tries to reduce the amount of poison taken so that it can be broken down more quickly by the body. In addition, tranquilizers and analgesics are used.
When should you go to the doctor?
Whether or not Acromelalga syndrome requires a visit to a doctor usually depends on the severity of the symptoms. The poisoning itself is not particularly dangerous to the human body and does not require special treatment. It usually comes through the poisoning not to permanent damage that would become noticeable in the further course of life.
However, if the pain or discomfort to the patient becomes unbearable, a doctor must be consulted. This is especially the case when Acromelalga syndrome causes paralysis in different parts of the body. These restrict the movement of the patient and should be treated.
Persistent fatigue and insomnia may also be signs of Acromelalga syndrome. Also in case of muscle cramps, a doctor must be consulted directly, as it usually comes to very severe pain. If there is a loss of consciousness, an emergency doctor should be contacted immediately. As a rule, the person concerned can consume a high amount of fluid in order to minimize the symptoms of Acromelalga syndrome.
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Treatment & Therapy
Normally, the doctor tries to induce vomiting in case of poisoning in order to remove the remains of the toxic food from the patient's body. This experiment can be done by the administration of emetics. Also a pumping out of the stomach is conceivable. The Acromelalga syndrome shows on average only after several days first symptoms. Therefore, vomiting in this condition is not usually of groundbreaking therapeutic success, as some of the toxins have already been adsorbed in the stomach and intestines.
Nevertheless, the attempt should be made, since the amount of poison can be at least reduced with a little luck. A curative treatment of Acromelalga syndrome does not yet exist because no antidote is known. However, the symptoms of the syndrome can be treated to some degree. For example, strong analgesics such as Novalgin are administered in high-dose as needed to combat the pain.
The doctor may give sedatives to mental disorders. The remission of the symptoms is expected within weeks. If, contrary to expectations, the neurological symptoms of the syndrome do not remit, physiotherapy treatments are usually prescribed.
Outlook & Forecast
Acromelalga syndrome usually does not cause any special damage or complications. The patient suffers from disorders of the nervous system, which occur due to the poisoning. This can lead to malaise and numbness in different regions of the body. Furthermore, paralysis also occurs, which can lead to a restriction of movement.
Partly due to the restrictions and paralysis, depression and other mental health problems occur. The person feels sick and tired. The muscles hurt and it can also lead to convulsions in serious cases. Often the symptoms of poisoning can also lead to a panic attack.
As a rule, Acromelalga's medical treatment is not needed and the symptoms disappear when the body has broken the poison. In acute cases or with life-threatening symptoms, medications can be used for treatment. Frequently, vomiting helps to expel the poison from the body. If the patient complains of mental illness, the doctor may also prescribe appropriate medication.
The life expectancy is not reduced by the Acromelalga syndrome usually and it comes in the most to a positive disease course.
The Acromelalga syndrome can be prevented by conscientiousness with the mushroom consumption. Poisonous mushrooms like the fragrant funnelling and the Japanese bamboo loin should not be eaten. Also all other toadstools are not suitable for consumption. Mushroom seekers should either be versed in mushrooms themselves or consult an experienced person rather than simply eating their food.
Acromelalga syndrome can be treated well today. With the appropriate aftercare can resolve the complaints within a few days. The patient should then spend a few weeks sparing and not performing any physically strenuous activities. As a rule, the doctor will recommend bed rest and, if necessary, a corresponding diet so that the remaining mushroom toxin is flushed out of the organism.
Typically, laxative foods such as cabbage or beans are recommended. Caffeine and alcohol should first be dispensed with, as the kidney is still busy with the elutriation of acromelic acid. In addition, in Acromelalga syndrome, the cause of the symptoms must be determined so that it does not come to a new poisoning.
As part of the aftercare, the physician will perform another physical examination and also conduct a comprehensive interview with the patient. Based on the results, the trigger can be determined. Subsequently, appropriate countermeasures are to be initiated, ie the disposal of the causative foods or the avoidance of certain substances containing substances of the perfumed funnel or the Japanese bamboo funnel.
Psychological measures are usually not necessary. However, it may be useful in individual cases to work up the disease as part of a trauma therapy. Especially in severe illnesses, in which the patient was in mortal danger in the meantime, at least a conversation with a therapist should take place.
You can do that yourself
Mushroom poisoning should always be treated by a doctor, especially as Acromelalga syndrome can lead to neurological disorders. Affected people usually tolerate no heat. Therefore, a cool room should be visited or provided for additional cooling by an air conditioner and sufficient shading. If no dermatoses have formed, cooling envelopes can increase well-being.
To reduce the pain in the arms and legs, the doctor often prescribes light painkillers or analgesics. These can be taken for a limited period of time. Since there is no antidote, the treatment can only rely on a rapid excretion of toxins. First, it is advisable to increase the fluid intake greatly, so as to reduce the amount of toxin in the body. An artificially induced vomiting - via an emetic - is advised by a doctor. Furthermore, the use of healing clay or bentonite can help to bind already absorbed by the stomach and intestine toxins. These are then excreted through the stool.
In very sensitive or prone to depression patients sedatives can also be taken. Homeopathically, the remedies support Nux Vomica and Arsenum in existing poisoning. Intensify pain and paralysis complaints in no time or even a shock, is immediately consult the ambulance. In most cases, however, the disease can be treated at home.