The common carotid artery is the carotid artery. It is used for blood supply in the head area and is also a measuring center of blood pressure. Calcification of the carotid artery increases the risk of stroke.

What is the common carotid artery?

The common carotid artery is the artery that supplies the neck and head with blood. This anatomical structure is also known as the carotid artery. The carotid artery divides at the Karotisgabel into the Arteria carotis interna and the Arteria carotis externa.

The latter is also referred to as the external carotid artery and supplies the upper cervical process, such as the larynx. The internal carotid artery is also known as the internal carotid artery and primarily supplies the brain. Put in a deep sleep, is the translation of carotis.

Pressure on the aorta shows as a leading symptom comatose fainting, as the brain can no longer be supplied with blood. On the right side, the carotid artery arises from the so-called brachiocephalic trunk. On the left side, it emerges from the aortic arch.

Anatomy & Construction

The carotid artery is one of the strong vessels in the human body. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is its upper limit. The lateral border forms the trachea. The carotid artery joins nerves and other vessels into the vagina carotica.

It is a shell made of connective tissue, which is located in the neck area. The structures of the carotid vagina are also summarized as a vascular nerve cord. The common carotid artery runs from the breast entrance to the head. The drainage channel, a muscle furrow in the neck area, serves as a graduated track.

The carotid sinus is also known as the exit of the internal carotid artery, which usually has a stronger expression than the external carotid artery. Above the carotid artery is a vein that removes blood from the face and head.

Function & Tasks

The task of the Arteria carotis communis is the blood supply of the inner and outer head area. From the inner carotid artery depart from smaller branches, which supply both the forehead and the nose with blood. However, the main area of ​​supply of the internal carotid artery remains the anterior part of the brain and the eye.

In contrast, the external carotid artery supplies the cervical soft tissues with arterial blood. The bony skull is also supplied by this section of the carotid artery. Blood transports oxygen. It is a medium that serves respiration. Thus, the supply of the head and neck structures with oxygen to the functions of the artery. If this supply were not guaranteed, it would come to a cerebral infarction. The Arterie carotis communalis is also a measuring center.

On the carotid sinus lie pressoreceptors that control blood pressure and transmit the measurement information to the brain. On the blood pressure data, the brain responds by regulating the fluid balance. An increase in blood pressure, for example, an increased urinary excretion is initiated. As soon as the pressorceptors report increasing pressure in the arteries, the stimulating moments of the sympathetic nerve sink. The heart rate decreases and the braking effects of the parasympathetic nervous system take hold. If the opposite is the case, it is the other way round.

In addition to the blood pressure detect the receptors at the departure of the carotid artery also permanently the composition of the blood. This measurement takes place via chemoreceptors and allows the carotid artery to monitor the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ph. These measurement data are transmitted continuously to the brain. Depending on the transmitted data, the brain increases or decreases the respiratory rate. Thus, the carotid artery is primarily a center of circulatory regulation.

Diseases

Atherosclerotic vasoconstriction is one of the most common diseases of the carotid artery. Mostly this disease is due to nicotine consumption, high cholesterol or hypertension. The fork in the internal and external carotid artery is particularly often affected by this phenomenon. Such deposits in the carotid artery can express themselves early on in neurological symptoms such as hemiplegia.

Such hemiplegia or a feeling of numbness due to carotid stenosis is usually understood as a harbinger of impending stroke, because a stenosis of the carotid artery greatly increases the risk of stroke. An operative correction of the stenosis is essential in such cases. This correction can be done consciously with local anesthesia or under general anesthesia. As a rule, a minimal incision on the carotid artery serves as entry into the bloodstream. The deposits are removed in this way.

If there is a constriction, then this constriction can be countered with a stretching plastic part. In addition to these symptoms, the carotid artery may also be affected by a carotid dissection. This leads to a hemorrhage in the vessel wall of the carotid artery. A blood clot can develop, which in the end favors a stroke again. Another danger is when the carotid pressoreceptors become damaged or tumors press on the carotid artery. This creates pressure on the carotid sinus, which lies at the level of the fork in the inner and outer carotid artery.

So the so-called carotid sinus syndrome occurs. The pulse and blood pressure are no longer measurable in this phenomenon. An acute cardiac arrest is triggered. In an acute circulatory collapse loss of consciousness occurs. The pupils dilate strongly and the skin turns bluish or purple.

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