What marks the belly?A flat stomach and a well-shaped navel are beauty ideals of our time. Sport and a healthy diet can ensure a firm stomach until old age.
The medical term for the abdomen, ie the abdominal cavity and its intestines, is abdominal. For example, if the doctor speaks of abdominal pain, it may mean abdominal pain or other abdominal disorders.
The body or abdomen are synonymous in medicine synonymous terms for the middle or lower abdomen. In the broadest sense, the abdominal cavity is also the so-called abdominal cavity to understand, which accommodates all abdominal organs.
The limitation of the abdominal cavity occurs on all sides almost exclusively by soft tissue. But there is also a bony protection of the abdomen. This is formed overall by the spine, proportions of the thorax as well as both iliac shovels.
The abdominal cavity is divided into two anatomical sections, the peritoneal cavity and the so-called retroperitoneal space. The peritoneal cavity is the part of the abdomen which is lined inwards with the so-called peritoneum. The retroperitoneal space is the space behind the peritoneal cavity. Also in this part of the abdomen are organs, such as the kidneys.
Anatomy & Construction
The anatomy and the structure of the human abdominal cavity result from its limitations to other anatomical structures as well as through the vital organs in the abdominal cavity. From the chest the abdomen is separated upwards by the diaphragm, downwards there is an anatomical limitation through the pelvis.
All walls and organs of the abdomen are enveloped by the peritoneum. In the connective tissue space behind the abdominal cavity are the retroperitoneal organs, kidneys, adrenal abdominal aorta, pancreas and duodenum.
Under the diaphragm dome is the seat of the liver, in the left upper abdomen is the spleen, which as an organ of immunity, although important functions, but is not vital to survival. The digestive organs fill the bulk of the stomach. The digestive organs include the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine and rectum.
In this digestive tract, after any liquid or solid food intake, digestion takes place in the individual anatomical sections. The indigestible remnants are excreted after dehydration and thickening of the anus as a bowel movement.
Function & Tasks
The different functions and tasks of the abdomen are determined by the organs and organ systems housed in it. The diaphragm acts as a muscle plate between the chest and abdomen for breathing. The chest contains heart and lungs. The abdominal aorta is the most important artery in the abdomen.
The kidneys serve as filter organs and ensure the excretion of superfluous metabolites through urination. The adrenals also belong to the abdominal organs, they take over important functions as hormone producers. The pancreas, pancreas, is responsible for the release of certain digestive enzymes and the regulation of blood sugar metabolism. As detoxification organ, the liver in the upper right abdomen is of central and vital importance.
The gall bladder is able to store the bile produced by the liver and to provide it quickly when needed for the digestion of high-fat foods. The gallbladder is not vital. The stomach is the central digestive organ, the gastric mucous secretes enzymes and hydrochloric acid, which are used in particular for protein digestion.
The small intestine serves the further digestion of the chyme. Through the intestinal villi there is the absorption of nutrients directly into the bloodstream. In the large intestine, the actual digestion process is already complete. Here, the chyme water is largely withdrawn and in the rectum, the food particles to natural excretion, also called defecation, collected.
Diseases & complaints
All organs and organ systems in the abdomen can become ill, this applies both to individual sections of the abdominal cavity and to the entire abdominal cavity. The main symptom of abdominal discomfort is abdominal pain, which can be acute or chronic. Abdominal pain, in all its forms, is always a symptom in need of clarification. It may hide both harmless and life-threatening causes behind it.
Especially in the case of the so-called acute abdomen with a bristle-like abdomen and defense tension, rapid medical treatment is required. The main cause of this acute abdominal pain is appendicitis, the so-called appendicitis. Other anatomical sections of the abdomen may also show inflammatory changes.
Likewise, the entire peritoneum may be affected by inflammation, medical professionals then speak of peritonitis. Peritonitis on the basis of a ventricular eruption or mesenteric infarction are still common today, the entry of feces into the free abdominal cavity is a danger to life and the immediate indication for surgery.
Also mucous membrane inflammations of the stomach, the so-called gastritis, are a common clinical picture. Just like pancreatitis, pancreatitis, gastritis can also be triggered by excessive alcohol consumption or malnutrition.
The abdomen is lined with a fine network of nerves, it is also referred to in this context from the abdominal brain. Therefore, vegetative disorders or stress also have a direct impact on the gut health. Unclear, chronic abdominal complaints such as irritable bowel syndrome are often an expression of these so-called functional disorders, usually without a specific anatomical finding.
In addition to inflammation, tumors of the entire gastrointestinal tract also play an increasing role. Due to malnutrition and obesity, malignant tumor neoplasms of the stomach, rectum or pancreas continue to increase.
Pancreatic carcinoma is considered to be particularly feared, because there is no early detection and abdominal pain due to such a cancer of the pancreas are usually symptom of an already extensive tumor infestation.