Ascomycota or Ascomycota are a division of fungi that breaks down into subdivisions such as Saccharomycotina. This subdivision includes the class Saccharomycetes with orders such as the true yeasts, Saccharomycetales. The hose fungus family Incertae sedis belongs to this order and contains the genus Candida.
Candida is a yeast genus that breaks down into different species. The genus includes about 150 species. Some of these species occur as commensals in the human body. Others are known as pathogenic agents of fungal infections.
The Candida lusitaniae are a species of the yeast genus that has been associated with human pathogenicity since the 1970s. The species was isolated from patients with fungal sepsis between the end of the 70s and the end of the 90s. Like all Candida cells, the cells of the yeast species Candida lusitaniae grow in the laboratory as large and round colonies with white to off-white color. Many yeasts of the species Candida cause problems only after a change in their milieu and then spread, whereby they can grow through the skin and get into the bloodstream. Also, Candida lusitaniae are considered opportunistic pathogens of this kind, which are not necessarily pathogenic agents.
Many true yeasts grow through pseudohyphae or true hyphae, which carry distinct septa with different pores and have cell walls of predominantly β-glucan. They only produce chitin on the budding scars. In their asci, they form one or more ascospores. Asci are formed from single cells or based on simple ascophores. A mitotic and meiotic division takes place inside the intact nuclear envelope.
Candida is called a polymorphic fungus genus, which occurs in different growth forms. Candida species usually form so-called blastoconidia by budding. In addition, there are also permanent spores or so-called Chlamydosporen, but not in Candida lusitaniae. The representatives of this yeast species grow, unlike many other yeasts, by individual yeast cells.
Basically, Candida is a harmless yeast species, which naturally grows ideally in the humid environment of the human and animal intestinal mucosa and other moist-warm body areas, such as in the mouth, within the esophagus, in the vagina or on the skin.
Under certain circumstances, the yeast species becomes a pathogenic pathogen that is constantly evolving. The resulting mold can penetrate the skin or mucous membranes, puncture them and cause infections or enter the bloodstream where sepsis may occur.
A generalized Candida infection affects, according to the latest scientific knowledge, exclusively people with a weakened immune system. A deficit of the immune system adjusts physiologically in old age. However, diseases such as HIV or cancer can weaken the immune system.
Candida lusitaniae have been known to cause blood poisoning in patients whose immune system has been weakened by malignant cancer and chemotherapy. In immunogenic patients, the immune system usually eliminates the yeast species as soon as it reaches the bloodstream, and thus before it can multiply extremely.
Candida can theoretically be transferred from host to host by smear infection. However, most infections are endogenous infections due to in-body commensals that are out of control.
The first symptoms of Candida infection are often relatively nonspecific and consist of flatulence, gastrointestinal discomfort such as constipation, abdominal cramps or puffed up feeling. Itching may occur at the site of primary infection with Candida lusitaniae.
When the pathogens reach the bloodstream and spread through the blood throughout the body, there is a Candida Fungemia. It is a fungal sepsis in which the pathogens are repeatedly injected thrusting or continuous into the bloodstream and cause a systemic inflammatory response of the entire body. The therapy usually consists of the administration of amphotericin B in combination with flucytosine.
In immunogenic people, the immune system intervenes and begins to eliminate the pathogens. Candida fungal sepsis therefore affects only immunocompromised people. The sepsis caused by the pathogen Candida lusitaniae was apparently increased after chemotherapy. The primary infection of the urinary tract, skin, lungs, hair, nails or other areas of the body is usually only observed in immunocompromised persons.
The infestation causes the symptoms of a mycosis. Mycoses typically remain confined to one body part or tissue, while systemic mycoses may involve multiple organ systems or the whole body. Mycoses of the mucous membranes are typical of fungi of the genus Candida. These are referred to in this context as "weakness parasites" because they speak for a weak immune system.
The mycosis species manifests as a white coating with redness of the mucous membranes as so-called thrush. Systemic blood poisoning with Candida lusitaniae is usually preceded by an infection of the lungs. Through the lungs the pathogens reach the blood during the infection.
Within the first 20 years, after identification of the yeast species as pathogens, only 30 cases of sepsis of this species have been documented.