Ciprofloxacin is an active ingredient that is used against a variety of diseases. It belongs to the group of so-called synthetic antibiotics. The active substance has an extremely broad spectrum of activity and is counted among the substances of fluoroquinolones.
Antibiotics from the group of fluoroquinolones have the property of inhibiting the so-called gyrase in bacteria. As a result, the bacteria are affected in the replication of their DNA, because the cell division is slowed down. As a result, the bacteria are inhibited from reproducing. Thus, ciprofloxacin has a bactericidal effect, which is primarily directed against gram-negative bacteria.
The antibiotic ciprofloxacin has an effect on gyrase as well as on DNA topoisomerase type IV. It thus reduces the DNA synthesis efficiency and the cell division ability of bacteria. In addition, other mechanisms of action are under discussion that have not yet been fully explored.
Ciprofloxacin has a secondary bactericidal effect. This means that the effect of the substance improves, the faster the bacteria multiply. At the same time, if the biosynthesis of proteins or the synthesis of RNA by chloramphenicol, macrolides or rifampicin is reduced, this reduces the efficacy of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin.
The substance is characterized by a very broad spectrum of action. Like other types of fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin is particularly potent against Gram-negative bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also effective against germs in the gram-positive region. In addition, intracellular pathogens are controlled.
In order to be effective, the correct dosage of the substance, depending on the disease to be treated, is essential. Depending on the type of infection vary dose and duration of use. In most cases, ciprofloxacin is given twice a day. The preferred form of administration is usually the tablet.
For certain diseases, a single dose of ciprofloxacin in an amount of 500 milligrams is sufficient. This is the case with gonorrhea (gonorrhea), for example. In addition, there is also the possibility of intravenous administration. In addition, a topical application of ciprofloxacin in the form of eye or ear drops is possible.
The administration of ciprofloxacin is indicated for bacterial infections whose pathogens are sensitive to the substance. These include, for example, respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Ciprofloxacin may be used in urinary tract infections caused by Proteus, Escherichia coli or Klebsiella. Ciprofloxacin may also be used in gastrointestinal infections due to Shigella, Salmonella, Typhus or Campylobacter.
Furthermore, the antibiotic can be used against the problematic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This causes, for example, diseases such as cystic fibrosis, otitis externa maligna and osteomyelitis. In addition, a prophylactic use of the drug in relatives of a patient with meningococcal meningitis is possible.
Basically, the antibiotic should be used in respiratory infections only after careful consideration, as it does not sufficiently against the responsible bacteria, the pneumococci, acts. Ciprofloxacin can also be used for infections of the biliary tract and anthrax.
Ciprofloxacin is associated with a variety of possible side effects, which can sometimes be very serious. The most common side effects include nausea, rashes and diarrhea. Pregnancy and breast-feeding are not recommended and children should not be given ciprofloxacin. Animal experiments with young dogs have shown that ciprofloxacin affects cartilage growth.
Other possible side effects include liver toxicity and neurotoxicity of the drug, as well as allergic reactions. Observations point to a connection to Red man syndrome. Since ciprofloxacin may reduce the seizure threshold, people with seizures should, if possible, avoid the antibiotic or take it only under close observation.
Numerous side effects of ciprofloxacin described relate to the tendons. This can cause swelling, pain, inflammation and tears on the tendons. The back of the ankle can also be affected.
Such side effects can occur in people of all ages. Swelling and pain on the Achilles tendon are most common. Tendon ruptures are still possible months after treatment with ciprofloxacin. The likelihood of damage to the tendons is also increased in patients older than 60 years. Observations indicate that parts of the drug can reduce tendon strength.
Rarely, ciprofloxacin has been shown to cause psychotic disorders or even suicidal tendencies. Patients suffering from seizures or cardiac arrhythmias should refrain from caffeine-containing foods and medicines as the effect of caffeine is enhanced. Occurring side effects should always be reported to the treating physician.