The definition of a dysgnathia refers to deviations of any form from the regular gearing, also known as the regulatory bite. The deviations from the regular bite are divided into three categories in dentistry:
Any deviation of the bony jaw from the norm is also referred to as a fault axis. The so-called chin dysplasia, visible from the outside as a protruding, fleeing chin, is a form of dysgnathia.
Congenital misalignments of the jaws lead to permanent overloading of the entire periodontium, the temporomandibular joints as well as the masticatory muscles. If no therapeutic intervention is required, premature tooth loss may result. Under normal conditions, the teeth in the teeth of the upper and lower jaw line up like a string of pearls.
In addition, the upper bite slightly over the lower teeth. Typically, the incisors of the lower jaw touch the posterior surfaces of the maxillary incisors. Any congenital deviation from this scheme is referred to in orthodontics as dysgnathia.
Acquired dysgnathia, which in the dental and orthodontic practice must be treated far less often, can result from poor oral hygiene or bony destruction in the jaw area, through tumors or inflammation. Childish dysgnathia are not always directly visible to the outside, because the jawbone is still growing.
The deviations are often only a few millimeters in congenital jaw malpositions in infancy. An early diagnosis is therefore very important so that later in adolescence or as an adult no manifest and difficult to treat findings results.
The main reason why a patient with dysgnathia visits a dentist or an orthodontist is the outward appearance. However, aesthetics of functional problems must be considered as separate aspects. The rows of teeth do not fit together optimally if the lower or upper jaw is too far back or protruding or if there is another form of dysgnathia.
Typical of many jaw deformities are complaints with speech or food. The sensitive muscles of the temporomandibular joints often react strained. These tensions can be extreme so that they not only remain localized, but can even spread to the neck, shoulders or back muscles. Not infrequently, no lip closure is possible for those affected.
Movement of the temporomandibular joints causes pain or cracking in the affected patients. The aesthetics of the jaw play a crucial role in the harmonious facial expression. Closely related to this is the language of facial expressions, which is considered to be crucial in determining whether a face is perceived as attractive or less attractive.
The entire facial profile is essentially determined by the position of the teeth. Only straight teeth and a closed dental arch allow a correct jaw position in all planes. Patients with dysgnathia also experience psychological distress.
The course of the disease in all forms of dysgnathia depends on the correct diagnosis by the dentist or orthodontist. The inspection of teeth and jaws already allows the doctor a reliable finding. For curing the diagnosis imaging techniques, X-rays are common.
In addition, patients must expect that also plaster casts will be made. Early diagnosed dysgnathia have a good prognosis because of the available conservative and surgical treatment options.
As a rule, in the case of dysgnathia, a doctor must be consulted if the jaw is deformed. This deformity is inherent in some people, so it is usually recognized directly after birth and can be corrected. If the discomfort occurs after an accident or after a blow in the face, an emergency doctor should be called or visited the hospital.
Furthermore, tension and pain in the area of the jaw and the mouth may indicate the disease. Even with a distorted facial expression or with an unnatural facial expression a medical examination should be carried out. In this case, either a dentist or an orthodontist can be visited.
Many sufferers also suffer from mental disorders due to the dysgnathia, so that in this case a psychological examination and treatment can be useful. In most cases, this disease leads to a positive course of the disease and the symptoms can be relatively well limited and alleviated.
Each therapy of a dysgnathia always strives for the category one, thus the rule gearing. This can be conservative or operational, but is not possible in all cases. To reliably detect malposition of the temporomandibular joints, a bite registration is required before any treatment for adult dysgnathia.
Depending on the form of a dysgnathia, the patient must first undergo preoperative, orthodontic therapy. This consists in the formation of the dental arches, the elimination of misaligned teeth, gullets or bottlenecks. However, these treatments may temporarily lead to a deterioration in aesthetics.
Prior to the main surgery, X-ray images, dental impressions and 3D images of the jaw are used to perform a simulated, model-like operation. Only in the main OR are then the errors in the vertical or sagittal planes of the jaw finally corrected. After such a complex, orthodontic procedure, patients usually have to wear loose elastics or bite splints for weeks or months.
As a rule, a dysgnathia must always be treated, even if it is already innate. As a result, most restrictions are completely resolved and there is a positive course of the disease. Self-healing does not occur in this disease.
If there is no treatment for the dysgnathia, the patients suffer from pain and tension in the musculature of the jaw. This also causes difficulties in the intake of food and liquids, which can lead to dehydration or to various deficiency symptoms. The pain can significantly reduce the quality of life. The mimic of the affected person is disturbed by the dysgnathia, whereby the teeth can be damaged by the deformities.
The treatment of dysgnathia is usually carried out by various surgical procedures and relieves the symptoms completely. Complications and other symptoms do not occur and there is a complete cure. This also ensures a normal development of the child. The life expectancy of the patient is not reduced by the disease. The therapy of the disease can be supported by self-help measures.
Prophylaxis is only possible against acquired forms of dysgnathia. However, the vast majority of dysgnathia in need of treatment are innate, ie genetically determined, but direct prevention is unfortunately not possible.
In the case of dysgnathia, the person concerned is primarily dependent on an early diagnosis so that there are no further complications or complaints. The sooner the disease is detected, the better it can be treated, and the better the outcome of the dysgnathia. The measures or possibilities of follow-up are usually severely limited or hardly possible, so that the focus is on the quick and correct correction of the symptoms.
In most cases, those affected are dependent on surgery, which can completely alleviate and limit the symptoms. This procedure should be carried out relatively early, so that it does not come to aesthetic complaints in later life. In many cases, the person concerned should rest after such an intervention and protect the body.
Efforts or other stressful activities should definitely be avoided. Even after a successful procedure, the Dysgnathia must undergo regular examinations by a doctor. Even wearing a bite splint can relieve the discomfort. In the case of mental upset, psychological treatment should also be sought.
In cases of dysgnathia, usually congenital misalignments of the jaws lead to constant overloading of the entire periodontium and the temporomandibular joints and the masticatory muscles. Dysgnathia, although often disfiguring, is therefore not just a cosmetic problem. If the affected person does not take any countermeasures, premature tooth loss threatens.
The treatment of a dysgnathia is often accompanied by a lengthy and complicated, preoperative orthodontic therapy. Usually only then can surgical measures be taken. Therefore, the best self-help is to seek a competent dentist specializing in the elimination of this disorder and to be fully informed of any necessary treatment.
Because many patients also have to adjust mentally to the lengthy and often exhausting therapy. Qualified doctors can be researched via the Internet. In addition, the medical associations and the health insurance companies provide information.
For those affected it is especially important not to lose patience during the most lengthy treatment or to fall into depression. This applies in particular also because the outward appearance usually initially worsens during therapy. Sufferers who suffer greatly from their physical appearance or therapeutic measures should consult a psychotherapist in good time.