• Wednesday May 27,2020


The pacemakers, which have made great progress in the treatment of heart disease, help many patients achieve a better quality of life and a longer life.

What is a pacemaker?

A pacemaker or pacemaker stimulates the heart muscle at regular intervals with the help of electrical impulses. Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders can be treated with it.

The pacemaker is a miniaturized device based on the highest technical progress. Another name for the pacemaker is the so-called Pacemaker.

In order for the pacemaker to fulfill its intended function, this miracle of medicine is predominantly implanted directly into the patient's body. Apart from the permanently remaining pacemaker are a variety of other compact devices that are left only in the organism for a certain period of time.

In practice, various types of cardiac pacemakers are implanted to reduce the risk of rejection and to provide those affected with the most perfectly matched heart rate support possible.

Shapes, types & types

The cardiologists and pacemaker experts and their manufacturers distinguish between the implanted pacemaker and the so-called transcutaneous pacemaker and a miniature implantable defibrillator.

Other types of cardiac pacemakers are the permanent units as one-, two- and three-chamber units. A separate subdivision of pacemakers based on their stimulation.

This can be done by electrodes from the outside over the skin, the esophagus, in the heart, outside the heart or by an implant located in the heart.

Structure, function & effect

The basics of a pacemaker are its housing and the connecting lines, its drive unit and the electrode. In addition, a pacemaker is provided with the necessary data and settings via a special programming component.

The pacemaker electrodes are divided into uni- and bipolar as well as different types. The programming of the pacemaker is without a fixed connection by special signals and a so-called bidirectional execution. This means that the pacemaker does not need to be touched directly. This is especially important for implanted pacemakers. The setting of the pacemakers is also based on a specific coding that responds to special stimulation areas.

The operation of the pacemaker is based on minimal surges, which are emitted by the electrodes. These stimulate the heartbeat and cause a rhythmic, even contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle. The pacemaker recognizes when heartbeats are briefly absent and irritates the heart muscle. In addition, by compensating for an increasing "heart stumble, " the pacemaker prevents life-threatening ventricular fibrillation.

In the function of the pacemaker work highly sensitive electronic components together, which can be operated by a computer and software-based principle.

The most commonly used pacemakers include the VVI series. These are the single-chamber pacemakers, which occupy a central part in blocking hyperactivity of the anterior chambers of the heart. The VVI pacemaker is also known in cardiological circles as a pacemaker, which only switches on in a special need situation and only works if the heart ventricle is passive.

If the heart chambers work normally again, this demand pacemaker can step into the "background". In contrast, the AAI pacemakers serve as an atrial pacemaker as well as a prevention against a ventricular fibrillation. But they are functional from the atrium.

Medical and health benefits

Heart pacemakers have long been unimaginable in cardiac pacemakers in connection with increasing heart disease.

The surgical implantation of a permanent pacemaker or temporary pacemaker therapy is justified if patients have been diagnosed as having massive and life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances and irregularities. A pacemaker is useful when medicines for hypertension (high blood pressure) or progressive weakness of the heart lead to a heart rate disorder.

The health-relevant effect of pacemakers lies in the fact that stimulation and transmission of the nerve stimuli of the heart can be supported. Through a pacemaker, a normal coordination of all processes occurring in the heart, so that the patients feel more powerful and stable again after this surgical procedure.

In addition, the Pacemaker reduce the mental stress caused by the constant fear of not surviving a ventricular fibrillation. Under these positive conditions more and more sufferers of a heart disease decide for a minimal pacemaker with a maximum effect.

Interesting Articles

Masseteric Flex

Masseteric Flex

The masseter reflex is a self-reflex of the masticatory muscles, which is triggered by a blow on the lower jaw and closes the jaw. The reflex belongs to the muscle stretching reflexes and corresponds to a congenital reflex movement of the masseter muscle. In peripheral and central lesions, the masseter reflex may be absent



A nerve is a closed, rope-like bundle of nerve fibers with a covering of connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system. This, in conjunction with other nerves, paves the way for electrochemical impulses transmitted along the nerve fibers to the peripheral organs. What are nerves? Schematic representation of the anatomy and structure of a nerve cell

Kampomele dysplasia

Kampomele dysplasia

Campomile dysplasia is a mutation-related malformation syndrome. Skeletal dysplasia, stunted growth and respiratory hypoplasia characterize the picture. About ten percent of patients survive the first weeks of life and receive symptomatic oeprative treatment to correct their malformations. What is a Campylobal Dysplasia



The epithalamus is part of the diencephalon and lies between the thalamus and the wall of the third ventricle. The Epithalamus are attributed to the epiphyseal or pineal gland, as well as the two "reins" and some connecting strands. It is certain that the pineal gland takes over important tasks for the control of the circadian rhythm, the day-night rhythm



In the epithelization phase of wound healing mitosis takes place, which closes the resulting tissue defect with new epithelial cells and heralds the subsequent phase of scarring. The epithelization phase follows the granulation phase and hardens the previously formed granulation tissue. Excessive processes of epithelialization can occur with hyperkeratosis and hypergranulation wound healing disorders



Aquacobalamin is one of the B12 vitamins. As such, it participates in the synthesis of amino acids. Lack of aquacobalamin and other cobalamins can lead to severe disorders that may include irreversible neurological damage. What is aquacobalamin? Aquacobalamin or aquocobalamin belongs to the vitamin B12 group, which in biology are also called cobalamins