What is the lung?Schematic representation of the anatomy and structure of the lung and bronchi. Click to enlarge.
In medical terminology and anatomy, the lung is also called pulmo - and serves as a vital gas exchange. Under these circumstances, the first breath, which is done through the lungs, begins immediately after birth.
In order to maintain the rather complicated function of the lungs, this large-area organ, which fills almost the entire thorax, is connected both to the upper respiratory tract and to the central organ, the heart. In addition, the lungs are protected by the ribs. The lungs are an extremely well-supplied body organ.
Anatomy & Construction
In terms of optics, the lung tissue acts like a medium-red sponge, which consists of two paired lobes. The lungs are subdivided in the lungs again the so-called smaller lung segments. In each wing of the lung, the right and left lung, there are 10-fold lung segments, whereby only 9 lung parts are arranged by a special anatomical condition in the left wing.
The pulmonary trunk, the more prominent part of the lung, is represented by the trachea. The pulmonary trunk divides into the so-called main bronchi. The main bronchi fill the right and left lungs. Further down the bronchi branch out more and more. Directly in the tissue of the lungs, the bronchi become the alveoli.
The alveoli are also known as alveoli. In these, the actual gas exchange takes place in the lungs. For this reason, the alveoli of the lungs are wound with the finest blood vessels. Several alveoli form a pulmonary alveoli in the lungs.
Functions & Tasks
The main functions of the lungs are to "exchange" oxygenated blood from the body for oxygen-rich blood. This means that oxygen-depleted blood is enriched by the absorption of oxygen by breathing with this vital gas.
When the oxygenated blood in the alveoli arrives, it is rich in carbon dioxide. This must be exhaled through the lungs. Both the oxygen and the carbon dioxide are absorbed by the hemoglobin incorporated in the red blood cells. The erythrocytes are supplied in the bloodstream by the pumping action of the heart of the lung and enter the capillaries. These surround the alveoli and the gas exchange takes place directly at the border between the alveolus and the blood vessel.
The lungs not only ventilate the entire body, but also the heart. If the carbon dioxide from the blood would not be exhaled via the lungs, this would lead to suffocation and poisoning in the organism. In the function of the lung, a distinction is made between a lung and a systemic circulation. In the lungs there is also mucus, which takes over a certain cleaning task of the patient.
In connection with the diseases of the lung are in addition to acute and chronic diseases in the center. Acute diseases, which include, for example, pulmonary embolism or pulmonary pneumothorax, often arise as a result of other underlying diseases.
If the lung itself is affected, this can be expressed by tumors manifested in the lungs or pneumonia. If it comes through diseases of the lungs, which are triggered by inhaled particles, a so-called pneumoconiosis develops. If it is disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses, tuberculosis can occur.
Not only bacterial and viral germs, but also individual fungi are responsible for a disease of the lungs. Also, hereditary diseases of the lungs such as cystic fibrosis with an increased formation of mucus in the lungs must be treated.
Lung diseases, which have become increasingly prevalent recently, include allergies and asthma. These are triggered both by natural substances in the breathing air and by aggressively acting irritants. In addition, the so-called pulmonary emphysema is also a typical disease of the lung.
Typical & common diseases
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
- to cough
- lung cancer
- pulmonary edema
- pulmonary fibrosis