What is the lysis?Among other things, lysis is the dissolution of dead cells or the dissolution of blood clots in a thrombosis. Lysis is a Greek term meaning dissolution or solution . Many chemical and biological processes are linked with the term lysis. Even within medicine, this term has different meanings.
In addition to the dissolution of dead cells or the dissolution of blood clots in a thrombosis, lysis is also a term for the gradual disappearance of a disease.
For the thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attacks, strokes or pulmonary embolisms, the term lysis is used as a short form of therapy. The resolution of pathological anxiety is called, for example, anxiolysis. In contrast, hemolysis indicates both physiological and pathological red blood cell dissolution.
In chemistry, the syllable 'lysis' characterizes resolutions of certain compounds by acting agents. So it comes with the so-called ozonolysis to the destruction of carbon-carbon double bonds by the action of ozone. During hydrolysis, water molecules break down and electrolysis breaks down certain chemical compounds.
Function & Task
In biology and medicine, lysis plays a major role. Thus, it has a great importance in the necrosis or apoptosis of body cells. In both cases, body cells die off. While pathological processes cause death in necrosis, apoptosis involves a targeted cell suicide program to make room for new body cells. During the subsequent lysis, the cell components are completely dissolved by enzymes. This process is vital, as it protects the body from poisoning and infection.
Another lysis process is triggered by the T cells of the immune system. The T-lymphocytes ensure that infected cells or tumor cells are dissolved. As ever-degenerate cells arise or cells are constantly infected with viruses or parasites, the lysis caused by T-lymphocytes takes place constantly.
The organs and tissues are constantly being rebuilt. This is how old cells die out as new cells form. In some organs these processes are very intense, in others less intense. Thus, the bone and skeletal system is constantly being rebuilt.
Due to the stress on the bones permanent structural defects occur, which are corrected by the degradation of the bones (osteolysis) and rebuilding again and again.
The blood cells will also be renewed within 120 days. The breakdown of red blood cells is called hemolysis. To ensure the renewal of the blood, there is a constant physiological hemolysis.
In thrombolysis, blood clots are dissolved by medication to prevent or treat heart attacks, strokes or embolisms. In biological research, the disruption of cells by ultrasound or by chemical processes to examine their proteins or their DNA is called lysis.
Diseases & complaints
Infection of body cells with viruses leads to the destruction of the cell after a few replication cycles in which new viruses are produced without subsequent dissolution of the cell components. This allows the viruses to spread further in the body. In this case, the missing lysis process leads to a spread of the infection. Only the targeted destruction and dissolution of the infected cells by T-lymphocytes, which are increasingly formed in the course of infection, stops the spread of viruses and initiates the healing process.
However, when the balance between degradation and rebuilding of body cells is disturbed, it leads to pathological processes. Thus, osteolysis and hemolysis are usually normal processes that rebuild the skeletal system or blood. However, if the degradation processes are over, serious illnesses can occur.
Increased osteolysis leads among others to osteoporosis (bone loss) or osteomalacia (mineral deficiency in the bone). The result is a high bone fragility. Increased breakdown of blood cells is referred to as increased hemolysis and leads to anemia (anemia). The breakdown product of hemoglobin is bilirubin. Bilirubin is yellowish and causes the typical symptoms of jaundice. While in physiological hemolysis the red blood cells are degraded after 120 days, the lifespan of the erythrocytes decreases with increased hemolysis. The severity of anemia therefore depends on the lifetime of the red blood cells.
Causes of increased hemolysis may be vascular changes, heart valve prostheses, genetic blood diseases (eg sickle cell anemia), infections (eg malaria), immunological disorders, toxins (including streptococci) or blood cancer.
All other organs are affected by the physiological cell degradation and cell dissolution. So the assembly and dismantling processes are usually in equilibrium with each other. However, if the degradation processes predominate, it causes the disease of the organ in question.
With increasing age, cell regeneration slows down without delaying the catabolic processes. As a result, a gradual degradation of the body's cells and their dissolution take place.
Lysis also includes the digestive process. For digestion, the so-called digestive enzymes of the pancreas are responsible. If the digestive juices are activated before release from the pancreas or their release is disturbed, it may come in the context of acute pancreatitis to complete self-dissolution (digestion) of the pancreas.