What is the maximum force?The maximum force is the highest possible force that an organism can muster against resistance.
Sports medicine knows different types of power. All of them affect the neuromuscular system and help to overcome resistance. In addition to the reactive power, the maximum force is one of the most important types of strength. The maximum force is the maximum force that a person can muster to overcome a resistance. More power than the maximum force is available to humans only in exceptional situations, such as traumatic and life-threatening experiences or under certain hypnosis techniques. In these situations, the extra power makes up the power reserves that combine with the maximum force to form the absolute force.
The maximum force depends on both internal and external factors. The number of muscle fibers, for example, has an influence on the maximum possible effort as an internal factor. External factors include relationships such as the time of day.
Function & Task
The maximum force is the basis for force properties such as endurance, speed and reactive power. It can be divided into different categories. One of these is the static maximum force, which is also called isometric maximum force. For example, the maximum holding power falls into this category. The type of force corresponds to the greatest possible strength that the Nerve-Muscle-System can muster against resistance with insurmountability.
From this, the dynamic maximum force is to be distinguished. This type of force refers to movements in which the force is due to the high stress only once and only at pre-defined conditions expendable. The musculature knows different ways of working. Depending on the mode of operation, the dynamic maximum force divides into concentric and eccentric dynamic maximum force. The concentric mode of operation corresponds to an overcoming of maximum high resistance.
The eccentric mode of operation is when lowering maximum weights. The dynamic types of force differ in their height from the static maximum force. For example, the concentric dynamic maximum force is located below the static. The static maximum force is again below the eccentric dynamic maximum force. Eccentric maximum force is understood by some sources as a metrological representation of an absolute force.
An individual power deficit can be determined by distinguishing between eccentric and isometric maximum force. This power deficit can be used for training planning. For example, a high power deficit indicates a low level of intramuscular coordination. Inform of a maximum strength training can improve these characteristics. Hypertrophy training, on the other hand, increases muscle thickness and helps to improve general strength abilities.
They are suitable for training planning with low power deficits and with a correspondingly high intramuscular coordination. Some authors consider the distinction of the individual forms of contrac- tion as inadmissible, since all are based on a uniform ability. For this reason, there are also sources that do not further break down the individual forms of contraction and describe all of them under the broader concept of maximum force.
Various factors determine the maximum force. Internal factors include muscle thickness, for example. The larger the thickness, the higher the contraction elements actin and myosin contained. In addition, the number of muscle fibers, the ratio of fiber types and the structure of the muscles to the internal factors of influence count on the maximum force.
The same applies to the interaction of the synergistic muscles, the course of the muscle drive through the nerves, the interaction of individual muscle fibers and the length of the muscle fibers. Also the pull angle, the elasticity of the muscles, the static maximum force and the muscle pre-stretching play as internal factors of the maximum force a role. It is also about the speed of contraction, the mental-mental level of motivation and the concentration.
Because of the average (not absolute) different muscle proportions of the sexes, gender is also to be considered an influencing factor. The age and state of training as well as the diet and the state of preparation complete the list of internal factors. In addition to the time of day and the ambient temperature, external factors include, for example, external motivation.
Diseases & complaints
The maximum force varies from person to person. Someone with a lack of exercise and a poor nutritional status will automatically have lower maximum strength. Such differences are therefore not equally pathological and therefore do not necessarily have disease value.
On the other hand, various diseases can limit the maximum strength of humans. This is especially true for diseases of the neuromuscular system. Especially diseases directly related to the contractile elements of the musculature negatively affect the maximum force. Such disorders include, for example, structural changes in the muscle element myosin, which can be caused by genetic mutations and trigger serious muscle diseases. One of the best known examples of this disease group is familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is subject to autosomal dominant heredity and can cause heart failure.
The term "myopathy" is used to describe many other diseases that are inherent disorders of the muscles and thus limit maximum strength. Myopathies have no neuronal cause, but always characterized by a weakness of the muscles. In all myopathies there are structural changes in the muscle and usually functional impairments. Most commonly, striated skeletal muscle is affected. Most myopathies have a mild course. Some of the muscle weaknesses are temporary.
Also a deficiency or defect of the contractile muscle structure protein actin can have consequences for the maximum force. Actin is considered an essential component of all cells. Therefore, mutations and structural changes of the protein in extreme cases even lead to the death of the organism. When the mutations affect the coding genes of the alpha actins, muscle diseases occur.