The cremaster muscle is also referred to as the cremaster muscle or the testicular and surrounds the spermatic cord and the testes. He reflexively contracts on external stimuli such as cold, pulling the testicles towards the trunk. In testicular malformations such as the pendulum testicle, exaggerated reflex movement causes abnormal testicular positions.

What is the cremaster muscle?

The cremaster muscle or cremaster muscle is a loop muscle of muscle fibers of the abdominal muscles. Specifically, the muscles of the cremaster muscle include the fibers of the internal oblique musus abdominis and the transversus abdominis muscle. These are muscle strands of the lower abdomen that meet in the Kremaster muscle loop.

The cremaster muscle is part of the striated musculature and thus belongs to the skeletal musculature. Like any other skeletal muscle, the cremater muscle can contract, moving the testicles towards the head. Because of this feature, the muscle is also popularly called the scrotum muscle. Unlike most skeletal muscles, the contraction of the cremaster muscle is relatively involuntary and tied to specific umganging stimuli. The cranial movement of the testicles should ensure the production of semen in counterproductive stimuli such as cold.

Anatomy & Construction

The muscle fibers of the two lower abdominal muscles form fiber bundles in the Kremaster muscle. These bundles follow in their course the spermatic cord. They run in loops of increasing length, which accompany the fascia of the testes and the spermatic cord. They advertise the tunica vaginalis and are innervated via the genitalis.

This nerve is a segment of the genitofemoral nerve, which connects the anatomical structure of the Kermaster muscle with the nervous system and enables it to respond to stimuli. Unlike the testes, the spermatic cord is completely enveloped by the muscle fibers. The striated muscle of the body consists of sarcomeres. The myofilaments myosin and actin make these sarcomeres and partially overlap in them. Bright I-bands of actin alternate in the muscles with dark A-bands from myosin bundles.

Function & Tasks

The lifting of the testicle in the direction of the abdominal wall is the task of the Kremaster muscle. For example, if the skin on the inner thigh side is exposed to temperature stimuli, it pulls the testicles upwards as a result of the contraction of the muscle and they thus lie in a more sheltered environment. This process corresponds to a reflex and is also called Krema reflex. This is an innate foreign reflex, which, like all other motor reflexes of the skeletal musculature, is interconnected via the spinal cord.

Thanks to this interconnection, the muscle is capable of a particularly rapid contraction response to certain stimuli. The spinal cord segments for the extraneous reflex are segments L1 and L2. The reflex of the Kremaster muscle can also be observed on animals. Some animals even pull the testicles completely into the abdominal cavity in response to certain stimuli. Since the Kremaster reflex is mainly triggered by cold stimuli, the testes were for a long time talked about their own thermoregulation. The general assumption at that time was that the reflex movement, by regulating the supply of heat in the milieu of the testes, would like to produce an ideally tempered level for the production of sperm.

Thus, the function of the Kremaster muscle has been associated with the reproduction quite insignificant. Since the testicles pull closer to the body through the Kremaster reflex but also in strong arousal, the relationship with the thermoregulation is now considered controversial. When excited, the reflex will probably only indicate a near orgasm. However, the original Temperierungsthese is not completely excluded even after this observation.


The Kremaster reflex of the Kremaster muscle may behave abnormally and may be too strong or too light, for example. Under certain circumstances, the reflex movement can also come to a complete standstill.

Abnormal reflex behavior of this kind can refer to both peripheral and central nerve damage. The spinal cord segments L2 and L3 may thus be affected, for example, by lesions which are usually due to either spinal infarction or degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. In addition to the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis, the degenerative nervous system disorder ALS should be mentioned in this context. However, excessive reflex responses of the Kremaster muscle may also occur in the context of testicular dystopias such as the pendulum testicle.

Testicular dystopias are unilateral or bilateral malformations of the testes as they may be in the context of mutations and various hereditary diseases. In this context, testicles are referred to as pendulum testicles, which are normally located in the scrotum, but respond to external stimuli with an enormously lively Kremaster reflex. This vivacious reaction is currently turning her into an outlandish location, such as a high-crotch or inguinal location. This testicular dystopia is one of the retractile miseries and does not have to be treated as long as the affected person does not suffer from it. However, if a pendulum testicle is not in scrotal position most of the time, corrective surgery may make sense.

The cremaster muscle can also be affected by illnesses. However, typical muscle disorders such as hamstring or muscle inflammation are rare in this region. Peripheral nerve damage occurs more often. For example, neuropathy may affect this muscle, as it is caused by malnutrition, various infectious diseases or poisoning.

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