The temporalis muscle is a human masticatory muscle. The skeletal muscle is at the level of the temple. He helps to close the jaw.

What is the temporalis muscle?

The temporalis muscle is a skeletal muscle located in the human facial area. It is called the temporal muscle because it extends below the temple on both sides of the face. At the same time he reaches down to the lower jaw.

His job is to help with the closure of the lower jaw. To the masticatory muscles of the human jaw a total of four muscles are counted. They all have different functions in the regulation of the purchase process. The four muscles take on all the necessary functions such as opening or powerful closing of the lower jaw. The mobility in all directions is controlled by them. The four masticatory muscles are the masseter muscle, the temporal muscle, the medial pterygoid muscle and the lateral pterygoid muscle.

While the masseter muscle works very closely with the medial pterygoid muscle, the lateral pterygoid muscle and temporal muscle also have other tasks. The temporalis muscle is responsible beyond the occlusion of the jaw for a withdrawal of the lower jaw is possible. Of all four masticatory muscles, the temporalis muscle is the strongest muscle of the masticatory apparatus.

Anatomy & Construction

The V. cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve. He supplies with his nerve branches large parts of the face. In addition, he is responsible with his branches the motor skills of the masticatory apparatus. Specifically, the mandibular nerve takes on this function.

He goes off as a second branch of the Nervus trigeminus. It contains sensitive nerve fibers that, among other things, supply the facial skin. In addition, it houses motor parts. These divide further into several sub-branches. They include the masseteric nerve, which innervates the masseter muscle. The temporal nerves provide the temporalis muscle. The pterygoid nerves are responsible for the supply of the lateral pterygoid muscle and the medial pterygoid muscle.

The last lower branch is the mylohyoideus nerve, which takes over the supply of the ground muscles of the mouth from the mylohyoid nerve. The temporal muscle begins with its course at the temporal fossa. This is a bulge on the skull near the temple. Large and fan-shaped, the temporalis muscle spreads in this area. He pulls to the lower jaw of the Kauapparates.

Function & Tasks

Like all other muscles of the masticatory apparatus, the temporalis muscle plays an important role in the movement of the lower jaw. Its main functions are the closure of the lower jaw and the ability to move the lower jaw to the rear. The masseter muscle, together with the medial pterygoid muscle, forms a unit. They lay around the lower jaw like a sling, increasing their power during the closing process. In contrast, the temporalis muscle works largely alone.

In direct comparison with the other masticatory muscles, the temporalis muscle is the strongest sphincter of the masticatory apparatus. He raises the lower jaw and thus allows the closure of the mouth. The masticatory muscles are significantly involved in the comminution of food. Due to the movements of the jaw, the ingested food is broken down into small parts, so that a later digestion can take place. It is chewed until the individual elements of the food have a size that can initiate the swallowing process. Too large elements make swallowing difficult or make it impossible.

The closing of the lower jaw allows you to bite off when eating. Only by closing the lower jaw, this possibility of food intake can take place at all. In addition, the muscles of the masticatory apparatus are significantly involved in speech formation. Without them, the phonation needed when speaking or singing would not be possible to a sufficient degree. Some sounds develop only by the raising and lowering of the lower jaw. The preliminary work of the phonation takes place in the larynx and the glottis. It is refined and completed by the movement of the jaw.

Diseases

Occurring pain in the chewing apparatus are experienced by humans as particularly painful. Many patients report pain attacks that are mostly related to teeth. Discomfort of the teeth has a direct effect on the entire masticatory apparatus.

Malpositions, defective dentures or inflammation of the nerves throughout the mouth and throat area cause problems when chewing. The masticatory muscles are in close connection with the head, neck and back muscles. As soon as complaints of the masticatory muscles are present, pain usually occurs in the other muscles. Headache or tension is one of the most common symptoms. More are nocturnal teeth grinding or Kieferfehlhaltungen. Once the temporalis muscle suffers lesions, the lower jaw can not be moved backwards. This has a direct impact on the crushing of food.

Furthermore, then the rotational movements of the lower jaw are no longer possible. Lesions are conceivable after accidents, fractures of the jaw or during surgical procedures in the throat or mouth area. In addition, impairment of the temporal muscle may result in changes and language formation limitations. The sounds can no longer be pronounced properly if the jaw can not make its movements sufficiently. This can lead to misunderstandings in everyday life and even make professional singing impossible.

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