Myolipoma is a benign tumor of fat and muscle tissue, which occurs primarily in the abdominal area and in the pelvic area. The cause seems to be a genetic mutation that affects women more often than men. The treatment corresponds to an operative excision.

What is a myolipoma?

Tumors are differentiated primarily depending on the degree of their malignancy and the tissues involved. Myolipoma falls into the group of benign tumors. These are growths of mature fatty tissue and smooth muscle cells, which occur mainly in the pelvic and abdominal area. The prevalence is rather low. In a two to one ratio, women are more likely to be affected by myolipomas than men.

In most cases, the benign tumors have a relatively considerable size. Since the growths are not prone to degeneration, even late recognized myolipomas are considered prognostically favorable. Even recurrences occur only in the rarest cases. The cause of the genesis seems to be for Myolipome in genetics. External factors for the tumor disease are not yet known.


As HMGA2 is known a gene of human DNA. This gene codes for the eponymous protein that performs architectural tasks in the human body. For example, the protein is an essential component of higher protein complexes that appear as regulatory factors in transcription. The previously documented cases of myolipoma suggest a mutation in the associated HMGA2 gene.

This mutation appears to correspond to both a deletion and a defective composition of the individual components. Mutations in the HMGA2 gene result in a misconstructed HMGA2 protein and a functional impairment of the associated protein complexes. The regulatory role in transcription apparently can no longer fulfill these complexes in a mutation of the gene. In addition to myolipoma, diseases such as obesity are also associated with mutations in the HMGA2 gene.

Symptoms, complaints & signs

Patients of a myolipoma suffer from macroscopically encapsulated tumors in yellowish color, which are provided with nodules or strands of light-brownish, fibrillar or vertebral tissue. If the tumor arises in the underlying soft tissue, its size is usually between ten and 25 centimeters. The subcutis is usually smaller lesions.

Histology shows mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle cells. The ratio is usually 1: 2. Often, the smooth muscle is evenly distributed over the lesion and is endowed with a deep eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm. The fabric pattern looks like a sieve. Atypical or mitotically significant activities are not observed in either the muscle or fat components of the tumors.

The fatty tissue can cause fibrosis and inflammation. These symptoms are the result of any symptoms that could complain patients with a myolipsoma. As conceivable symptoms are due to the inflammatory components, for example, burning or easy-drawing pain.

Diagnosis & disease course

In many cases Myolipsome are tactile findings. This is especially true for tumors of the subcutaneous tissue, which can be very easily palpated above a certain size. For diagnosis, the physician usually biopsies the tissue and has this biopsy histologically analyzed. Histology shows minimal division behavior and is free of atypts.

Immunohistochemically, the smooth muscular part of the myolipoma shows a diffusely strong positivity for actin or desmin. Sometimes expressions of estrogen or progesterone receptors can be detected. For the differntialdiagnostik especially the melanocyte HMB45 marker plays a role. In the case of a similar angiomyolipoma, this marker is positive.

On the other hand, it is negative for the myolipoma. The prognosis for a myolipoma is extremely favorable. The tumor is benign and does not tend to degenerate even after years. Once the growth has been completely removed, it usually does not reappear.


In most cases, myolipoma does not cause any particular complications or life-threatening conditions as it is a benign tumor. The affected persons, however, may suffer from various inflammations and infections, so that the quality of life is significantly limited by this tumor. Likewise, sufferers often suffer from fever and pain in the affected areas.

If the pain also occurs at night as a rest pain, it can also lead to sleep problems and thus to depression or other mental illnesses. A general irritability of the patient is not uncommon. The pain is usually burning.

It is not possible to treat myolipoma causally because it is a genetic defect. The person affected, however, various therapies are available that can limit the complaints. There are no special complications. In some cases, the proliferation can also degenerate, with a removal is necessary in any case.

With early treatment, the life expectancy of the person affected by this disease is not reduced. Other complications do not occur in most cases. The risk of degeneration is relatively low.

When should you go to the doctor?

In any case, tumors such as Myolipome must be diagnosed early and treated. Anyone who notices nodules, lesions, sensitivity disorders, and other signs of a tumor should consult the family doctor. If you already have concomitant symptoms such as increasing pain or hormonal discomfort, you should consult a doctor immediately. Although the myolipoma is a benign condition, serious complications can occur if it is not treated or treated too late. At the latest, if further complaints such as inflammation or infections occur in connection with a node, the doctor must be informed.

The family doctor can already make a first diagnosis based on a physical examination. Further treatment is provided by a specialist, such as a dermatologist or an internist. During the treatment regular visits to the doctor are necessary, because there is a risk that the proliferation degenerates. Therefore, regular check-ups must be carried out after the completed therapy. Parents who notice symptoms of a tumor in their child should immediately contact the appropriate pediatrician.

Therapy & Treatment

A causal therapy is not available for the myolipoma. The proliferation apparently originated in genetics and is associated with mutations of the HMGA2 gene. Therefore, a gene therapy approach would have to be followed for the causal therapy. These therapeutic approaches are a current research topic but have not yet reached the clinical stage.

For this reason, myolipomas can only be treated symptomatically. The focus of this treatment is excision. An operation is performed to remove the tumor. In myolipomas of the subcutaneous tissue, the surgical procedure is usually less invasive than that of the deeper soft tissues. The removal of the proliferation should take place as completely as possible in order to exclude the already rare recurrences.

In view of the low risk of degeneration, many patients of the myolipsoma tend to refuse the operation. Nonetheless, the doctor should speak out clearly and clearly for the operation. Despite the low risk, degeneration can theoretically take place. Therefore, only the complete removal of the tumor gives the patient security.

Although the tumor grows at a slower rate, growth does occur. This fact also supports surgical excision, as overgrowth beyond a certain size could cause more or less unpleasant discomfort.

Outlook & Forecast

Myolipoma is a benign lesion. After the surgical removal of myolipoma, there is no risk of recurrence. The lesion does not degenerate, but can be treated relatively well. The prognosis is accordingly positive. However, the prerequisite for a good prognosis is early treatment by a specialist.

If surgical removal of the tumor is not possible because myolipoma is located near sensitive organs or arteries, for example, the prognosis is less positive. It may be possible to try to treat the condition with chemotherapy. In the normal case, however, this is not very promising, because with chemotherapy, various complaints and complications may occur, which must be considered. The exact prognosis can only be made by a doctor.

However, the prognosis and the prospect of a complete recovery in a myolipoma is generally comparatively good. Assuming early therapy, the myolipoma should be completely removed without further discomfort being expected. Concerned persons are best advised to consult with the responsible physician, who can give details of outlook and prognosis.


So far, no external factors for the formation of a myolipoma are known. Only if such factors exist could promising preventive measures be available. While genetic analysis or mapping may provide insight into the personal risk of developing a myolipoma, it is not necessarily a precautionary measure.


In a myolipoma, the patient is usually only a few and limited options for direct follow-up available. For this reason, patients with this condition should ideally go to a doctor at a very early stage to prevent the onset of complications or complications. As a rule, no independent healing can occur, so that the patient always has to rely on medically controlled treatment.

The sooner a doctor is contacted, the better is usually the further course of this disease. In many cases, this disease can be removed by a minor surgery. At the same time, the person concerned should definitely rest and take care after such an intervention, whereby efforts or stressful and physical activities should be foreseen.

Likewise, the body should not be unnecessarily burdened. Even after the procedure regular checks by the attending physician are necessary. The disease itself does not reduce the life expectancy of the patient, with no further follow-up care being necessary. It may be possible to leave behind a scar, which can be cured in some cases.

You can do that yourself

Patients with a myolipoma should daily scan their body for any irregularities or nodules. This helps in the early detection and thus a quick treatment. The sooner the tumors can be detected, the better the possibilities for treatment. These lead to a small number of complications and sequelae. Discovered growths should therefore be discussed as soon as possible with a doctor.

The body's weight should always be in the normal range of the BMI. The knots are primarily in the adipose tissue of the person affected. The more pronounced the fatty tissue, the more difficult it is to detect the tumors early by palpating the skin. Since it is indicated in the context of self-help, to reduce excess weight. This allows a quick diagnosis as well as an early detection of irregularities. By changing the food intake and controlling the necessary calories, weight can be reduced on one's own responsibility. Adequate exercise and sports activities also help to reduce obesity.

If there are already patients with myolipoma in the family, regular check-ups are advisable. Although the genetic disease can not be cured with the current medical options, a comprehensive diagnosis of the disease over the further course of an optimization of the early detection can take place.

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