What is suture?Medical suture is understood to mean surgical materials for closing wounds.
Medical suture is understood to mean surgical materials for closing wounds. Such injuries are usually caused by accidents. But also targeted cuts in the context of surgery are possible. After surgery, the surgeon recovers the wound with the surgical material, which is often colloquially referred to as a "thread".
In the manufacture of medical suture, attention is paid to the matching of the types of tissue in which they are used. Important factors are the nature of the surface, the capillarity and the tensile strength. In the surface condition of the suture, the sliding properties of the suture are primarily important. Thus, the tissue trauma when sliding is less, the less resistance.
A distinction is made between smooth and rough suture. With smooth material, there is more tension. This makes it better suited for a more accurate apposition of wound edges. If the suture has a rougher surface, it slides more sluggishly within the tissue. However, the knot security of the rough material is better than with the smooth suture material. In addition, it has a larger suction effect.
Also important is the capillarity of the medical suture. Thus, the capillary forces from which microorganisms and wound fluid are absorbed, larger, if the material is filamentous. In contrast, braided sutures are considered unsuitable for infected wounds.
A special role also plays the tensile strength of the material. This determines which force effects are possible with the suture without it being destroyed. For example, plaited material has a greater force tolerance than threads made up of a single fiber.
Shapes, types & types
For surgical sutures, it is important to distinguish between several types and shapes. In addition to the needles, the threads represent the most important suture material. In earlier years, threads of sheep's gut or natural silk were used. At present, medicine almost exclusively relies on modern plastics.
The most important distinguishing features are resorbable and non-absorbable sutures. Threads that are non-absorbable must be removed after a certain period of time. In such cases, then the "threads pull" is the speech. However, since not every area of the body is suitable for pulling threads, such as the subcutaneous fatty tissue or the internal [organs], the medicine sometimes resorts to resorbable sutures that can be broken down by the body.
Not only the material of the threads plays a role, but also the duration of absorption. In modern threads, hydrolytic cleavage occurs through body water. Of importance for absorption are the nature of the treated tissue, which has a different moisture content, as well as the surface size and diameter of the filaments.
There are differences between thick and thin threads. Thus, more extensive threads withstand greater forces. Thick threads are used especially when sewing under tension. However, the thick threads after drawing also form more extensive puncture channels, which in turn can lead to scarring.
The threads are also distinguished by monofilament and polyfilem material. Monofilament threads have the advantage of having good sliding properties and a closed surface. However, thicker monofilament threads lack wire. Polyfile threads are created by interlacing or twisting individual threads. They have a better knot seat, but are rougher.
Structure & functionality
Medical needle and thread suture material is assembled. In ancient times, the medicine resorted to sterile needles that could be reused and clamped in a spring-ear. Today, however, only needle-thread combinations are used, which are used once. In this case, a unit is formed by the needle and thread. The thread can not be exchanged.
In addition to the material of the thread and the material of the needle is important. So there are needles that are suitable for a variety of purposes. These include straight, curved, small or large and sharp-edged triangular or round needles.
If it is an atraumatic suture, the maximum caliber of the needle and the thread are identical. In addition, there is a stepless transition. In this way, the puncture channel is completely filled by the thread so that no blood can escape from the channel even in the case of vascular sutures. The hollow end of the needle, from which the beginning of the thread is enclosed, is considered to be delicate in manufacture and use.
Medical and health benefits
Suture materials such as needles and thread are indispensable for the successful operation of wounds. The thread can be introduced separately into a needle eye or comes as a packaged needle-thread combination used.
Medical use found the suture already in ancient times. But it was only during industrialization that special surgical sutures were designed. Thus, the first real suture was available from 1860 by introducing the Karbolt catgut. Before that, the same material was used as when sewing clothes and fabrics. The industrial production of sterile catgut took place in 1909. Synthetically absorbable sutures have been around since 1931. In later years, other materials such as sheathed polyamide threads, synthetic collagen threads, and polyesters were created.
The sutures allow to close open wounds by sewing. Thus, they ensure rapid wound healing and protect the body from the ingress of germs, which can cause, for example, bacterial infections.