• Wednesday May 27,2020

peristalsis

The human digestive system is constantly in motion. This is necessary to transport absorbed substances in the body to the organs. Peristalsis is understood to mean the muscular activity of the hollow organs in the body, which serve this digestion. It can be distinguished between the forward and the backward peristalsis.

What is peristalsis?

Hollow organs are organs whose cavity is enclosed by a tissue. These include, for example, the esophagus, the stomach and the intestine. The movements of these organs, called peristalsis, are wavy and intermittent.

Function & Task

Peristalsis is the muscle activity of the hollow organs in the body, which are used for digestion.

The peristalsis is controlled by nerve cell braids, which are autonomously controlled in the intestinal wall. The neuronal regulation of peristalsis is the responsibility of the enteric nervous system. In intestinal peristalsis four types of movement are distinguished.

The contraction of normally smooth muscle moves annularly in propulsive peristalsis. It transports the contents of the hollow organ in one direction. After ingestion, the chyme enters the duodenum via the stomach and then into the small intestine in small portions. The further transport into the small intestine section also happens only in batches.

As the porridge is passed on, it is mixed with digestive fluid and enzymes. The transport can take different lengths and varies from person to person. A role in transport but also plays the amount of fiber and the absorbed liquid. If there is little fluid in the organism, the transport in the digestive system may be delayed. The process by which the intestinal wall moves forward and back is also known as the gut motility. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the functioning of peristalsis.

The local reflexes are particularly influenced by the interaction of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, which ensure a fine regulation of organ activity. The parasympathetic nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system. It slows the heart rate and promotes digestion. The network of nerves on the intestinal wall governs these signals and leads to a rhythmic tension and relaxation of the muscles. The porridge is thereby transported further.

In the non-propulsive peristalsis is the mixing of the intestinal contents. The contraction waves are circular and triggered by local reflexes. This step is also called rhythmic segmentation.

If the transport proceeds in the normal rhythm and in the right direction, we speak of orthograde peristalsis. If the normal transport direction is reversed, such as surgery, or a slowing down in transit time, there is retrograde peristalsis.

In retrograde peristalsis, the chyme does not enter the intestine, but is transported back through the esophagus. Vomiting is the side effect that results from this process. In the case of ruminants, this mechanism is also to be found - in their case wanted.

The process of retrograde peristalsis is also a significant process in the colon. The large intestine is driven by the periodic mass movements. These movements occur up to three times a day. The contents of the intestine are transported to the rectum, and the bowel movement can finally be eliminated by the gastrokological reflex.

Increased peristalsis can be seen when food has just been taken. In rest periods and on slow walks, the intestinal movement is particularly stimulated. In many people, the intake of caffeine additionally causes an increase in peristalsis.

Diseases & complaints

If the body is very concentrated and very focused on performance, the peristalsis will be reduced and the majority of the gastrointestinal activity will be switched off. Inhibiting inflammation in the abdominal cavity the intestinal muscles also show a reduction in peristalsis.

During peristalsis there are noises in the stomach and intestines. Due to the varying intensity of the sounds, it is possible for a doctor to assess illnesses. An investigation will clarify the possible diseases.

When the peristalsis mixes too much food or thin liquids, bubbling sounds are created. Flatulence is also noticeable in the form of bowel sounds. The bubbles move through the intestine, causing sounds in this way.

The doctor uses a stethoscope to better localize and interpret the bowel sounds. The normal bowel sounds are brisk and lively over all four quadrants of the abdominal wall. Also, an ultrasound examination of the abdomen provides information about the movement in the gastrointestinal area. Magnetic Marker Monitoring is a newly developed method that allows you to track and analyze the digestive process with a capsule swallowed by the patient.

If bubbling proves to be very violent, it may indicate diarrhea. If the patient suffers from intolerance to lactose intolerance, bowel sounds may also be heard.

If there is no sound when examining the intestine, this indicates in most cases an intestinal obstruction (ileus). In this case, a paralysis of the intestinal wall occurs. If severe abdominal pain and blood in the stool is another symptom, a doctor should be consulted to diagnose and develop a treatment plan.

The intestinal obstruction can also be due to mechanical reasons. The intestinal wall tries to break the occlusion site. This process makes the bowel sounds more noticeable. A cause of mechanical ileus can be a foreign body in the intestine, or even a cancer.

Based on the bowel sounds is still no clear diagnosis possible. Further diagnostic measures are taken to find out the exact cause. Depending on which disease in the intestine is concerned, drug or surgical procedures are used as therapy. If it is a tumor or a mechanical ileus, surgery is the only way out.


Interesting Articles

Masseteric Flex

Masseteric Flex

The masseter reflex is a self-reflex of the masticatory muscles, which is triggered by a blow on the lower jaw and closes the jaw. The reflex belongs to the muscle stretching reflexes and corresponds to a congenital reflex movement of the masseter muscle. In peripheral and central lesions, the masseter reflex may be absent

annoy

annoy

A nerve is a closed, rope-like bundle of nerve fibers with a covering of connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system. This, in conjunction with other nerves, paves the way for electrochemical impulses transmitted along the nerve fibers to the peripheral organs. What are nerves? Schematic representation of the anatomy and structure of a nerve cell

Kampomele dysplasia

Kampomele dysplasia

Campomile dysplasia is a mutation-related malformation syndrome. Skeletal dysplasia, stunted growth and respiratory hypoplasia characterize the picture. About ten percent of patients survive the first weeks of life and receive symptomatic oeprative treatment to correct their malformations. What is a Campylobal Dysplasia

epithalamus

epithalamus

The epithalamus is part of the diencephalon and lies between the thalamus and the wall of the third ventricle. The Epithalamus are attributed to the epiphyseal or pineal gland, as well as the two "reins" and some connecting strands. It is certain that the pineal gland takes over important tasks for the control of the circadian rhythm, the day-night rhythm

epithelization

epithelization

In the epithelization phase of wound healing mitosis takes place, which closes the resulting tissue defect with new epithelial cells and heralds the subsequent phase of scarring. The epithelization phase follows the granulation phase and hardens the previously formed granulation tissue. Excessive processes of epithelialization can occur with hyperkeratosis and hypergranulation wound healing disorders

aquacobalamin

aquacobalamin

Aquacobalamin is one of the B12 vitamins. As such, it participates in the synthesis of amino acids. Lack of aquacobalamin and other cobalamins can lead to severe disorders that may include irreversible neurological damage. What is aquacobalamin? Aquacobalamin or aquocobalamin belongs to the vitamin B12 group, which in biology are also called cobalamins