With the term "phylogenesis" biology designates the phylogenetic development of a group of living beings and their kinship groups. At times, the term also includes the progressive development of individual features in the course of developmental history and, in this case, mainly includes the context of evolution.
Phylogenesis is distinguished from ontogenesis, which refers to the development of individuals within a particular species. A phylogenetic reconstruction for a particular group always takes place through studies of hereditary characteristics. This analysis of traits is carried out both on the living species and on its fossil representatives.
The reconstruction of a phylogenesis aims at the clarification of relationships of the individual species and also allows the reconstruction of phylogenetically natural systems with the taxonomy. Often phylogenetic relationships are made visible by means of a representation in the family tree.
Phylogenetic examinations exist for a variety of holistic, but also individual characteristics of humans. For example, there are now phylogenetic explanations that deal specifically with the formation of language in the course and contain molecular genetic studies of the language genes. The morphology of the speech and language organs was compared in these phylogenetic studies. Based on this comparison, the researchers described the language development starting from the unicellular and finally with the recent human. The linguistic genes of humans were compared molecular genetically with those of other animals such as the mouse, the songbird or microorganisms.
The goal of the phylogenetic studies was primarily an improved understanding of human speech. In addition to the question of where language is needed and the limits of language performance, epistemological questions arose. The phylogenesis gives the latter the answer that a species knows only as much of the truth as it is compatible with the survival of the species.
In the phylogenetic comparisons of the morphology of speech and language organs, the human language was compared in particular with that of the chimpanzee. Since the chimpanzee, in addition to a far advanced jaw, has a rather irregular tooth structure and a shallow throat, it is difficult for him to articulate in the direction of human language. Genetically, humans and chimpanzees have nearly the same genes for speech motor skills. Even for the cognitive tendencies of human language, the chimpanzee is better suited than any other species.
In addition to this and similar phylogenetic investigations, for example, today's embryology includes phylogenetic issues. Thus, the main question in this area is whether the development of a single organism can be understood as an image of tribal history. In this context, structures such as the pharyngeal arches of the human embryo play a role which, from a phylogenetic point of view, probably correspond to relics of the phylogenetic ancestors and would be comparable to the gills of the fishes, for example.
Causal links between phylogeny and ontogenesis are a relevant field of research in embryology. In this area of research, phylogenesis, for example, addresses the question of whether genetic control and developmental genes or embryonic principles of education and mechanisms can be understood as a central point of attack for mechanisms of evolution or species change.
Basically, individuals with ontogenesis with severe deviations from phylogenesis usually suffer from a disease. Phylogenetic examinations may also take place in relation to certain diseases themselves and in this case attempt to understand the history of a particular disease in a given species and the possible adaptations of the species resulting from it. An example of a disease in which phylogenetic studies exist is the HIV virus. The phylogenetic analysis of the virus disease suggests that the HIV virus has passed three times or even more than three times independently from an animal, such as a monkey, to a human individual. Based on molecular clock 2, a timeframe between 1930 and 1940 can be determined, with Africa as the original country appearing. These conclusions could be made by reconstructing the phylogenies of different variants of the HIV virus.
Diseases, of whatever kind, are examined by means of a phylogenetic analysis for their history in the human species. For example, when there is a longer history of certain diseases in a given strain, the host and germ are becoming more and more compatible.
Phylogenetic considerations have become the focus of research, not just on diseases but also on human body processes such as coughing. In this case, the phylogenesis proves that the vital functions of swallowing, vomiting and breathing in all vertebrates due to the gill-intestine had to be protected by reflexes, as they can easily be mixed by the anatomical structures. Fish spit out stubborn particles or inedible matter from the gill basket through a powerful contraction on the pharyngeal muscle through the mouth. Land vertebrates possess a separation of functions cough and spit. The lungs and pharynx of these creatures are freed from coughing by particles. The esophagus and stomach, on the other hand, rely on spleens. The nose cleans land creatures by sneezing.Tags: