• Wednesday July 15,2020


The cold is by far the most common disease of the inside of the nose. The term "cold" is a variety of different forms summarized. Likewise, the individual causes are very different.

Forms of colds

The cold is by far the most common disease of the inside of the nose. Cold can be divided into acute and chronic forms, but better still according to their cause.

Basically, the cold can be divided into acute and chronic forms of cold, but better still according to their cause. Thus, within acute forms we know the common cold, a cold at various infectious diseases, a nervous cold - and especially hay fever.

In the chronic case, however, the cold in inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses, in specific diseases of the inside of the nose, for example, tuberculosis and syphilis, and the common cold in tumorous diseases of the inside of the nose and paranasal sinuses. The following is intended to deal in more detail with the acute forms of the cold.

Acute rhinitis

In acute cold you have to see an inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which leads to increased secretion of the nasal mucosa: The stored in the mucosa glands but more than usual secretions from, and also the blood flow is increased. This leads due to the existing cavernous mechanism, especially in the shell area to a kind of congestion in the vessels and thus causes an increase in size of the shells and at the same time a narrowing of the nasal cavity, so that you get bad or no air at all through the nose. Thus, the two main symptoms of the cold are given.

Nervous, vasomotor cold

Another type of runny nose is the nervous or vasomotor cold, which, strictly speaking, can not be counted among the acute forms. As is known, the most important functions of the nasal mucosa are swelling and secreting and secretions, the autonomic nervous system.

Disorders of this system, caused by various internal factors, can be answered by the nasal mucous membrane with an increased reactivity, which manifests itself in sneezing fits, abundant aqueous secretion, and more or less blocked nose. This affliction, in which completely discrete periods alternate with those of the reactions just described, is quite persistent, though by no means threatening.

Allergic cold

Closely related to this is the allergic cold, which is triggered due to the hypersensitivity of the nasal mucosa and at the same time increased reactivity towards substances of the outside world. The number of these substances is extremely large. For example, house dust, bedsprings, mattress fillings and the like, dander of animals, professional dust, especially flour, also wood, leather and drug dust, powder and perfumery come into question; in rarer cases strawberries, raspberries, tomatoes and other fruits, chemicals and much more.

hay fever

Of the allergic diseases, hay fever is the longest and best researched so far. It is almost only caused by grass pollen, mainly of the Windbloods. The flowering time of the various hay fever plants is not quite the same, it also varies in landscape, which also causes the hay fever period.

The symptoms of hay fever are essentially the same as those of nervous cold, that is, attacks of sniffing with sneezing attacks and severe aqueous secretion of the nose. The eyes are almost always involved, which manifests itself in photosensitivity, tingling and scratching, redness of the conjunctiva, often the eyelids, by strong tears and not infrequently in eyelash swelling.

Most of the time the symptoms are sudden and develop rapidly to their full strength. However, some patients do not respond so stormily. With them, several days are sometimes preceded in which only the general condition is disturbed before the full clinical picture develops. The allergic cold is thus a complex term, for which the most diverse allergens must be held responsible. To find out this is extremely difficult and requires great patience from the patient as well as the doctor.

Generally speaking, allergic rhinitis, especially hay fever, is in no way a life-threatening disease. No one dies from hay fever, and he does not shorten his life.


So far, if one counts the acute cold as the common cold, it must be seen today according to the latest findings in him a viral symptoms. Not so long ago, the long-anticipated common cold virus could finally be detected and bred. The frequency of the cold depending on the seasons is a recognized fact, as well that the influence of the weather plays a certain role in its formation. According to this, we must look into the cooling or cold of the organism a favorable condition for a cold virus, although the cold does not need to be an absolute precondition.

Diseases with this symptom

  • cold
  • allergy
  • flu
  • Animal dander
  • croup
  • bronchitis
  • measles
  • rubella
  • mold allergy
  • nasal polyps
  • whooping cough
  • hay fever
  • Sinus inflammation
  • House dust allergy
  • adenoid


An old rule of thumb says that the acute cold lasts about nine days; It is coming up for three days, it is blooming for three days, and it stops for the remaining three days. In general, this is true, but it can also be different, depending on the constitution of the organism and the type of common cold virus.

Although the clinical picture varies, however, it usually begins with general symptoms such as shivering or freezing, low temperature increases and exhaustion. Also shows a striking need for sleep, reluctance to mental work, pressure and feeling of fullness in the skull. There is often itching or pricking in the nose, resulting in frequent sneezing.

After initial dryness in the nose and mouth, the nose swells, and finally there is a considerable secretion flow, which initially has an aqueous character. This can last for several days until the secretion becomes purulent and tenacious with the onset of the cold, and gradually disappears. Prolonged yellowish-green purulent nasal secretions and also persistent headache indicate a concomitant disease of the paranasal sinuses. It may be predominantly one or both maxillary sinuses affected.

The odor disturbances that occur during cold are caused by the state of swelling of the nasal mucus. Headaches also arise from the state of swelling, which is caused by the laying of the paranasal sinuses and the disturbed ventilation. Dull hearing or pressure on one or both ears is a consequence of inadequate ventilation of the middle ear caused by the spread of inflammation on the nasopharynx and on the tubes.

Lighter forms disappear with the onset of the cold, stronger ones on the other hand can be more sustainable and require specialist treatment. The same applies if the paranasal sinuses are affected. It is not uncommon for the tube or the eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx, ie, the outside world, to develop an acute middle ear infection. This requires separate treatment, while the uncomplicated cold does not necessarily have to be treated by a specialist.

The healthy person is a nasal breathing and it has long been known that the nose plays the main role as a portal of entry for a large number of infectious diseases. Flu, measles, scarlet fever, rubella, angina, but also certain diseases of the meninges and poliomyelitis - to name but a few. It is in the reaction of the nasal mucous membrane that it reacts with attack by these various microbes with a cold, so with increased secretion, swelling of the mucous membrane and the corresponding general complaints.

The course of such cold forms does not differ significantly from the common cold. Mostly he is only fleeting nature. It can also extend over a longer period of time during the respective infectious disease. From this point of view, the head cold is a symptom, especially in childhood, from which many things can develop. In the best case, a common virus cold.


Coughing is usually harmless, but it can also lead to various complications. A common sequelae is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses or the middle ear. It is less likely to cause laryngitis or tracheal and bronchial inflammation, depending on the severity of the cold, the constitution of the patient and the concomitant symptoms.

Acute has a cold on well-being and performance. Affected persons usually feel weak and tired, which increases the risk of other complications and the development of mental illnesses. The weakened immune system can also lead to dizziness, fatigue and a carryover of the disease. Chronic sniffling does not only burden the immune system in the long term.

Also the mouth and throat area is burdened by typical treatment measures. A possible complication of runny nose is also painful redness and inflammation of the nose. The feeling of malady also strains the psyche and inhibits brain activity, and similar to other viral infections it can lead to depression and further complications. Although severe complications of cold are unlikely, every cold should be discussed with the family doctor.

When should you go to the doctor?

In most cases, a normal cold does not require any medical treatment. Mostly, the cold occurs as a concomitant symptom of a cold or flu and must therefore not be treated medically. It disappears again when the underlying disease has been treated. The doctor can then consult a doctor if he wants to alleviate the symptoms of the cold. He also has various resources available from the pharmacy. However, if the runny nose persists for a long time and also occurs after the healing of the flu, then a doctor should be consulted. Likewise, a visit to the doctor for inflammations and infections is necessary.

Patients suffering from allergies or intolerances may also seek medical attention to reduce their allergies so that they do not runny during certain seasons. A permanent cold may have a negative effect on the nose and lungs and should therefore be avoided. In the case of the usual flu or cold, the symptom is harmless and usually disappears even without medical treatment.

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Treatment & Therapy

There are currently no special medicines to combat the common cold. Only nose drops or nasal sprays reduce the effect of the cold in part significantly. First and foremost, however, it is necessary to alleviate the general symptoms, which can only happen by the swelling of the nasal mucosa. For this one uses best the so-called nose drops, which cause an air permeability of the nose for several hours.

Furthermore, a lot should be drunk so that the mucus and the bacteria from the nose can drain quickly. Physical exertion should be avoided if it is professional. Bed rest is usually not necessary.

Outlook & Forecast

A cold is usually harmless. Usually the symptoms disappear after three to five days; In the case of poor hygiene, an underlying infection and in other exceptional cases, the recovery may also take several weeks or months.

In addition, a retarded cold can lead to the development of another influenza infection, which is accompanied by typical flu symptoms and reduces the chances of a speedy recovery. In rare cases, a chronic cold can develop with a series of lasting symptoms. Also possible side effects such as high fever or ear and throat pain affect the prognosis.

Generally, runny nose is not a major impairment and usually sounds without long-term complications. A severe course is unlikely and is rarely associated with major health risks. In normal cold, such as occurs in the context of a cold, is generally assumed that a rapid cure.

Cold as a concomitant symptom of a very serious disease (HIV infection, Ebola, etc.) requires comprehensive consultation by a specialist before a final prognosis can be made.


As already mentioned, the cold is infectious. The virus is transmitted to other people via droplets, most commonly sneezing. A cold does not leave any immunity, that is, after a cold you have survived you are not immune to a renewed cold disease. A lot of sports and exercise in the fresh air, sauna and healthy, varied diet can prevent a cold, as well as a cold well.

Home remedies and herbs for colds

other home remedies ↵ for colds

  • For colds we recommend a facial steam bath, prepared from 5 liters of chamomile tea and 6 tablespoons of ribwort juice. It is mixed and put into a saucepan on the table while still cooking. Then the steam is inhaled vigorously. Or heat 1 teaspoon of healing clay in the oven and place it on your forehead, or put a drop of iodine tincture in a small glass of water and take a small sip several times during the day.
  • Malventee is a good remedy for cold and cough.

You can do that yourself

Colds are among the diseases that are particularly well suited to be treated with traditional home remedies. The most important thing is to keep the mucous membranes of the nose as moist as possible. In this way, the common cold can fulfill its function, the removal of viruses and bacteria, particularly well.

Moisturizing the mucous membranes is basically possible in two ways. On the one hand in the context of local application, by rinsing the nose with a home-made salt solution (about 1 teaspoon to 1 l of lukewarm water) or inhaling with a towel over the head, for example freshly brewed sage tea. On the other hand, an increased amount of drinking helps that the nasal mucosa does not dry out and pathogens provide no rough places for docking. In addition to water, herbal teas are particularly suitable here. Sage tea is particularly recommended in this context, because sage has a slight disinfecting effect. This is helpful if an infection in the area of ​​the throat and throat has occurred for a cold.

Particularly tight sniffles, which persistently sit in sinuses and frontal sinuses, can often be loosened with a standard red light. This process can be effectively supported if the room air is always kept moist by a bowl of water on the heater, especially at night.

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