There is hardly an organ in the human body that is so resilient and yet stretchable within a certain limit like the tendons. The tendons not only contribute to a morphological unity of the bones and thus to an upright posture. The tendons are also joints between the muscle strands and the bones.
In addition, the tendons at the same time encourage the implementation of different patterns of movement such as sitting, squatting, lying and stretching. The extensive complex of tendons is divided into different areas. The Latin name for the tendon is tendo. In medicine, the name Flechsen is often chosen for tendons.
The anatomical structure of the tendons contributes to giving it different shapes. The general structure of the tendons is characterized by a tight connective tissue in combination with a portion of supporting tissue, so that the forces of the muscles can be smoothly passed through the tendons to the bone.
In cross-section, the tendons show the intercellular substance located between the tissue cells as well as a whole series of connective tissue fiber strands. These are arranged next to each other at the nerves. Between these strands are few nerves and vessels for blood supply. The tendons with the tendon sheath are like a cut-through power cable.
In contrast to an electrical conductor, the tendons are encased in the stratum fibrosum. The tendons are embedded in the so-called tendon sheath and are surrounded by a total of 5 tissue layers.
Despite the uniform structure of the tendons are in the human body both slices and narrow as well as wide and extremely strong and round cross-sections of the tendons before. The lengths of the tendons also differ.
The tendons are clearly part of the holding apparatus and allow the interaction between the muscles and the bones. For this reason, the tendons must have an enormous tensile strength to be able to cope with sometimes high loads.
As important connectors, the tendons place the transmission media of the muscular forces required for human locomotion on the bone areas and are able to contract and relax. The tendons are "intermediate pieces", which also ensure an attenuation of potential forces on the bone as an approach or tendon. Thus, the tendons contribute significantly to the fact that bones can not break.
The tendon sheath prevents friction between bony prominences and adjacent tissue areas of other organs. The tendons are able to temporarily act as storage for kinetic energy. When it comes to mobility, the tendons help release the energy, allowing the bones and muscles to work. If a resting phase occurs, the tendons contract to a certain limit and expect the next movement stimulus.
Quite often, orthopedic specialists have to treat injuries to tendons caused by over or under loading. As a result of the external effects in particular ruptures (tearing) of the tendons or overstretching arise.
The most well-known damage to tendons is the Achilles tendon rupture. Furthermore, other tendons can be severed if the stresses occur abruptly. Classical acute diseases of the tendons in this regard are the cracks of the biceps and the quadriceps and the patellar tendon.
An entirely different disease that can affect the tendons is inflammation. Within this category, tendonitis is typical. This occurs in particularly sensitive tendons. These are located on the hocks and wrists. Another disease that also affects the tendons is fibromyalgia. Tendopathies or diseases of the tendons also include the so-called rotator cuff syndrome in the shoulders and the epicondylitis humeri radialis and humeri ulnaris.
This disease of the tendons affects the elbow in the area of ulna and radius. The gout can also lead to deposits on the joints, which cause the development of disability of the tendons.