Under Thrombozytopathie scientists understand all clinical pictures, which cause a dysfunction of the platelets. This means that the platelets can not perform their normal function of helping to coagulate blood as usual. The result is that bleeding is not stopped so quickly, but last longer. In addition, frequent bleeding occur.
The number of platelets remains unchanged. There are two forms of thrombocytopathy: inherited and acquired. Most diagnosed thrombocytopathies are the acquired form.
Hereditary thrombocytopathies are due to various syndromes. Among others, Bernard-Soulier syndrome or Willebrand-Jürgens syndrome are known. Another rare disease is Glanzmann thrombosis. All diseases have in common that they result in a genetic defect that prevents the platelets from doing their natural function.
The causes of acquired thrombocytopathy are versatile. They occur, for example, when the immune system is weakened by an infection. If the kidneys are impaired, for example in renal insufficiency, platelet dysfunction may be a concomitant disease. Also liver diseases can lead to such a clinical picture. In addition, patients suffering from leukemia are sometimes affected by thrombocytopathy.
Very often the malfunction occurs in connection with the intake of medication. Above all painkillers (for example aspirin) and anti-inflammatory medicines like diclofenac are to be mentioned here. Certain antibiotics, such as penicillin, have also been identified as the cause. The influence of medication is significant. This must be considered by doctors in upcoming operations.
Because a badly functioning blood clotting can have fatal consequences here. Therefore, such substances should be discontinued before the planned intervention in a sufficient period of time.
The clinical picture of thrombocytopathy has various symptoms. Very often patients suffer from increased nosebleeds. Bleeding gums is also a typical feature. Internal bleeding, for example, of the gastrointestinal tract, which appears as blood in the stool, may also be an indication. Persons who discover above-average hematoma (bruising) on their body should also consult a doctor.
In women, thrombocytopathy is characterized by an unusually long-lasting menstrual period. After minor surgery or pulling a tooth, prolonged bleeding may indicate coagulation failure.
If one or more of the symptoms described above occur, seek medical advice. There are several aspects to consider when making a diagnosis. First, a general survey of the patient takes place. Here, the doctor is interested in bleeding events and related incidents with relatives. According to this medical history, the doctor asks questions about possible drug use, as this is the main cause of thrombocytopathy, as already described.
If we have confirmed the suspicion of a disease, the doctor determines the clotting time by a so-called addiction test. Here he determines after a slight cut the time to coagulation. A final laboratory checkup provides the final confirmation of a confirmed diagnosis.
In the case of thrombocytopathy sufferers suffer from a number of different complaints. First and foremost, this disease is very often a nosebleed. This complaint can have a very negative impact on the daily life and the quality of life of the person affected and significantly restrict this. Also, bleeding on the gums occur frequently and can lead to infections of the gums.
The patients also suffer from stomach or intestinal complaints, so it can also lead to a bloody bowel movement. Due to thrombocytopathy, there is a high level of bruising or bleeding on the skin. In women, the disease can also lead to a long-lasting menstrual period. Even mild wounds or cuts bleed longer and the wound healing of the patient is significantly delayed.
Thrombocytopathy can usually be treated relatively easily with the help of medication. Special complications do not occur. However, this treatment must be done throughout life. Even with surgical interventions, the risks of bleeding must be better estimated. As a rule, this disease does not reduce the life expectancy of the patient.
If human bleeding can not be stopped or if it is very difficult to stop it, a doctor should be consulted immediately. If large amounts of blood are already lost in small wounds, this is considered unusual and a sign of a health disorder. A doctor is needed because a life-threatening condition threatens an unfavorable course of the disease. If bleeding can not be stopped, there is a risk of bleeding on cuts.
Frequent nosebleeds or bleeding gums are indications of a disease. If bruising or hematomas develop even if there is a slight pressure on the skin, a doctor should be consulted. Discolouration of the skin, an unusual pallor and a low resilience should be presented to a doctor. If sexually mature girls or women have a very heavy menstrual period with enormous blood loss, a doctor must be consulted. If bleeding leads to dizziness, malaise, inner weakness or loss of physical strength, clarification of the cause is recommended.
General dysfunctions, a loss of blood during the toilet as well as fatigue and fatigue are other complaints that need to be investigated. For headaches, irregularities of memory, sleep disorders and palpitations, the explanation of the cause is advisable. Medical examinations are needed to help diagnose and prepare a treatment plan.
In order to be able to treat a thrombocytopathy, the cause must first be identified. If the disease is due to the use of medication, it is - if possible - discontinuation of those. To further treat the causative disorder, the doctor will prescribe an alternative medicine. If you want to take action against the coagulation disorder, the administration of so-called DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin) substances offers.
These help to restore the natural function of the platelets. As a dosage form, a nasal spray or an infusion are common. Whether the treatment with the substance was successful, the doctor determines by test applications. In an emergency, affected patients receive a transfusion. This may be necessary in the context of surgery if an existing thrombocytopathy has not previously been diagnosed.
At the same time platelets are taken from a healthy donor into the blood circulation of the sick person. A risk here is that the recipient does not tolerate the transfusion and it comes to the rejection of the administered platelets.
If a blood coagulation disorder is sufficiently known before an upcoming procedure, preventive measures must be taken. In addition to the described discontinuation of the causative preparations, the attending physician can administer the hormone desmopressin. This causes the platelets to adhere better to the injured site, thus accelerating the coagulation process again. Depending on the type of procedure involved, the doctor may choose to administer it as a nasal spray (for example, in the case of tooth removal) or via the vein (during surgery).
Children and adolescents suffering from the congenital variant of thrombocytopathy also receive numerous preventative measures to avoid worsening their condition. These include the regular administration of platelet concentrates, which take over the function of impaired platelets. In addition, affected children get special drugs that lead to an increased formation of coagulation factors.
Girls suffering from the disease take supportive hormones during the menstrual period. Since liver disease is a cause of the coagulation disorder, vaccination against hepatitis A and hepatitis B is advisable.
In most cases, the possibilities of a direct follow-up in the case of thrombocytopathy are clearly limited or in some cases are not even available to the person concerned. Therefore, they should consult a doctor at the first signs and symptoms of this disease and also initiate treatment so that it does not come in the further course of complications or other complaints.
The sooner the doctor diagnoses and treats thrombocytopathy, the better the course of the disease usually is. Most sufferers are dependent on the intake of various medications. As a result, the complaints are limited and also significantly alleviated.
It is important to ensure a correct dosage and a regular intake. In case of questions or side effects, a doctor should always be consulted first. Furthermore, regular checks and examinations by a doctor should be carried out. Frequently, sufferers in thrombocytopathy relies on a lifelong therapy to counteract the symptoms. However, the life expectancy of the person affected by the disease is not limited. In some cases, contact with other people affected by the disease makes sense, as it can lead to an exchange of information.
Thrombocytopathy is only treated for physical complaints. The dysfunction of platelets usually does not cause any health problems. The self-help measures are limited to looking after the diagnosis of unusual symptoms that may indicate illnesses.
The doctor must be informed about these symptoms. If there are no health problems, a general practitioner or internist should be consulted regularly. A regular measurement of blood counts is indicated to check for platelet dysfunction while identifying any subsequent physical complications. If health problems are found, usually a drug treatment, such as desmopressin. The patient can support the treatment by being gentle and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. In addition, it is important to pay attention to any side effects and interactions of the drug treatment. The doctor must be informed about side effects, so that the necessary measures, usually the conversion of the medication, to be able to initiate swiftly.
Further self-help measures are usually not necessary for thrombocytopathy. The dysfunction of the platelets should therefore be treated primarily as a precautionary measure by discontinuing triggering medications such as diclofenac or penicillin.