A tick bite is carried out by ticks, which colloquially are also referred to as wooden hives. With the appropriate biting tools, which are extremely hard and resistant, the ticks can penetrate the soft skin and bite in the affected regions. Through this bite, the ticks get to small, blood-carrying vessels, from which they suck the blood through a special trunk.
Ticks belong to the insects and are mainly in the forest and in the meadow at home. They resemble spiders and are known as ectoparasites. Not only the blood of humans, but also of animals roaming around, the ticks can suck in blood through the tick bite and feed on it for a longer time.
In particular, tiny ticks that are no bigger than a pinhead, set the tick bite. Large and swollen ticks are already soaked in blood and fall off on their own. Since the ticks are very hard to recognize and inconspicuous, the tick bites are initially not noticed in some rather insensitive, extremely warm body parts.
The causes of a tick bite are quite different. The tick bite itself, however, comes as a causal trigger for many diseases in question. In addition to Lyme disease and the so-called tick bite fever allergic reactions and painful inflammation of the skin are the result of the tick bite.
The causative agent of tick bite fever is a bacterium known as Rickettsia rickettsii. In contrast, the invading Borrelliose bacteria that belong to the class of spirochaetes cause the typical symptoms. The term spirochaetene is chosen because the bacteria have a helical appearance. These microorganisms use as a host in turn the Schildzecke and pass through their saliva in the body of man.
A tick bite is always clear when the animal is still on the skin. If this is not the case, you will only come to the diagnosis of symptoms that occur. Symptoms can be divided into three stages. Not every tick bite leads to a disease. In examinations infected persons remained symptom-free.
The first four wicks after a tick bite are characterized by a local infection and flu. Around the puncture there is a permanent redness. This widens its radius and fades increasingly in the center. In addition, there is a fever after a few days in those affected. Also, fatigue, joint pain and even bowel problems are possible. Doctors speak in this context of Lyme disease flu. But it does not include a cold or a cough.
After the first four weeks, the pathogen continues to spread in the body. He can attack the nervous system, the heart and the skin. Flu symptoms such as fever and headaches reappear. Sudden and uncontrollable sweats characterize everyday life.
A good 16 weeks after infection, the disease becomes chronic. This means that the previously mentioned symptoms occur again and again. Symptom-free periods alternate with periods of flu and other signs. Paralysis and sensory disturbances, palpitations and high blood pressure as well as skin nodules occur.
A tick bite does not necessarily lead to serious complaints. Complications can occur if the tick is infected with Lyme disease and transmits the bacteria to humans. Then you may experience various symptoms, such as headache, muscle and joint pain, fever and conjunctivitis.
Lack of treatment can lead to flu-like symptoms after a few months, and the nervous system eventually becomes ill. Such neuroborreliosis is associated with meningitis and nerve roots and symptoms such as paralysis and neurological deficits. In addition, the heart can be affected and it comes to a heart muscle and pericarditis, which is associated with cardiac arrhythmia.
The most serious complications occur in a tick bite in Lyme disease stage III. At this stage, it comes after months to years to chronic joint inflammation, skin lesions and permanent nerve damage to paralysis. The Lyme disease is almost always fatal or at least with severe health problems that require lifelong treatment.
The therapy itself, apart from the typical side effects and interactions, poses no major risks. Venous administration of the drugs, however, can lead to infections and rarely to injuries or the formation of blood clots.
With a tick bite, the measures of self-help are sufficient in a large number of cases. A visit to a doctor is therefore not always necessary. The person concerned should be sufficiently informed about how a tick can be completely removed from the organism. If all specifications are strictly adhered to, after a few days a complete freedom from complaints can be expected. If removal of the tick is not completely successful for various reasons, the assistance and assistance of a physician should be sought.
It is worrying when the head of the tick is still in the wound. In these cases, complete removal of the insect by a physician must be initiated. If after a tick bite different health irregularities on, as soon as possible to see a doctor. In case of irregularities of wound healing, an internal weakness, fever or other diffuse health complaints consultation with a doctor should be held.
If the general well-being deteriorates to a considerable extent within a short time, an ambulance service is to be alarmed. In case of disturbances of the heart rhythm, tiredness as well as abnormalities of the muscular apparatus there is need for action. If paralysis occurs, a doctor must be consulted immediately. Headaches, sensory disturbances or abnormalities of the memory activity should be examined and treated as soon as possible. If neurological deficits are noticed, an intensive care of the affected person is necessary.
Several types of treatment are relevant to Lyme disease, which can occur after a tick bite. In addition to comprehensive diagnostics, targeted oral treatment with antibiotic drugs is particularly recommended, which can be administered immediately at an early stage and over a longer period of time.
If it is a late-stage Lyme disease, special antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, as well as the substance Hydrochloriquin are available as a therapy. Since the Lyme disease is difficult to treat due to the course form, it is doubtful whether the disease occurring after a tick bite in the third stage is treatable. In addition to anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs other symptomatic substances are prescribed.
A tick bite can definitely be prevented. In addition to the effective use of sprays and creams against the ticks, as bright as possible clothing and closed sleeve and waistband are among the most important protective measures.
In addition, it is advisable to inspect each other for the presence of ticks after a stay in the wild. In particular, in skin folds, in the back of the knees, armpits and other soft skin areas a tick bite is to be feared, if no protection has taken place.
Staying in heavily tick-infested areas (mainly meadows) can also be avoided during the high season. Strongly scented essential oils, such as lavender, rosemary or tea tree oil, as well as closed and sturdy shoes also help against tick bites.
After staying in the open air, it is advisable to search the body at home, especially in areas with large numbers of ticks. For a tick bite the family doctor should be consulted if possible. He can expertly remove the insect and minimize the risk of disease transmission.
Even if the tick has already fallen off, a doctor can carefully remove the animal's debris and cleanse and disinfect the wound. The wound should be masked with a plaster, regular cooling promotes healing. Scratching the wound should be avoided as much as possible. If you experience unusual redness or excessive itching, you should consult a doctor.
Although a tick bite usually heals after one to two weeks, the spot should continue to be monitored. Consequences can also appear only months or even years later. Therefore, it is important for the person concerned to recognize possible signs of infection with Lyme disease in good time.
Physical complaints such as persistent head and body aches should therefore be clarified by a doctor. Although a single tick bite is usually unproblematic, preventive measures such as firm, closed footwear and highly scented lavender or rosemary essential oils can prevent the associated health risk.
If a tick bite is noticed, the family doctor should be consulted. The pest is expertly removed to minimize the risk of disease transmission. If the tick has already fallen off, a doctor's visit is also indicated. Residues of the animal should be removed. The wound must be disinfected and cooled.
After a tick bite, it is important to observe the bite site. Redness, itching and other unusual symptoms should be reported to the doctor. Scratching the wound should be avoided. In addition, the bite site should be masked with a plaster and regularly cooled to promote the healing process. The bite should have subsided completely after one to two weeks at the latest. The affected area must continue to be monitored, as complications can still occur months or years later. In addition to external signs, diseases such as Lyme disease are also noticeable by physical complaints such as limb or headache.
A single tick bite is usually unproblematic. Nevertheless, every bite must be examined by a doctor and the risk of a bite minimized. In the event of a bite, medical care and control of the body for further tick bites is important. Preventive measures prevent a tick bite and the associated health risk.