Sugar in the urine (glucosuria)
What is glucosuria?Sugar in the urine (also referred to as urine sugar, urine sugar or glucosuria) speak medical, if in the urine an increased amount of glucose is included.
Sugar in the urine (also referred to as urine sugar, urine sugar or glucosuria) speak medical, if in the urine an increased amount of glucose is included.
In the urine, glucose passes through the kidney in humans: so-called kidney bodies extract sugar from the blood. The amount of glucose that is not absorbed by the kidney cells for recycling then passes into the urine.
In the urine of a healthy person are usually only very low concentrations of glucose. Glucosuria often occurs when the blood glucose concentration in a person is higher than 180 mg / dl. Because glucosuria is often symptom-free, its presence is often discovered by chance.
An increased concentration of glucose in the urine results from increased blood sugar levels: If the blood sugar level is too high, the kidney can no longer draw the sugar sufficiently from the blood (if the renal capacity for glucose utilization is exhausted, this is also called the renal threshold). As a result, excess glucose is excreted through the urine and it comes to urine sugar.
Causes of glucosuria can be both renal (kidney related) and non-renal in nature. Among the possible renal causes of glucose in the urine include kidney tumors or kidney poisoning by heavy metals.
As a result, the kidney is impaired in its function, which can affect the glucose utilization. The most common non-renal cause of urinary sugar is the presence of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes causes a high blood sugar concentration, which eventually results in a glucosuria or glucose in the urine.
Diseases with this symptom
- Diabetes mellitus
- Heavy metal poisoning
Diagnosis & History
The presence of glucosuria can be diagnosed using urine test strips. If glucose has been detected in the urine, the next step is usually to investigate the causes of glucosuria. For this purpose, usually a patient interview with the attending physician.
The individual medical history of a patient can often already give first indications of possible causes of uric acid. On the basis of a presumptive diagnosis, the doctor can then carry out various further diagnostic examinations, such as a blood test.
The course of glucose in the urine depends mainly on the extent to which it is possible to control the corresponding causes. If renal causes such as functional impairments or kidney diseases can be treated or if they heal on their own, this usually has a positive effect on the course of the glucosuria. The same applies to non-renal causes of glucosuria.
Sugar in the urine speaks for a high blood sugar, which can occur especially in the context of diabetes, which has numerous complications. The sugar in the blood combines chemically with the proteins in the blood, which can then be deposited in the smaller vessel walls. This can lead to a closure and thus to a disruption of the supply of the corresponding organ with blood.
Predisposed areas are the eye in the area of the retina, the kidneys and nerves. In the eye, it can lead to poor vision or even blindness (diabetic retinopathy). In the kidney, it leads initially to an increased excretion of urine, since the sugar osmotically attracts the water and the kidney can not absorb the sugar sufficiently.
As a result, the excretion becomes less and less, ending in kidney failure (diabetic nephropathy). In diabetes, it also leads to wound healing disorders, since the circulation is reduced. This leads to problems, especially on the foot. In addition, there is damage to nerves (diabetic neuropathy), so that there are sensory disturbances.
At the foot so smaller wounds can not be noticed and these can enlarge and infect. Not infrequently it comes to the death of the tissue and the foot must be amputated (diabetic foot).
When should you go to the doctor?
An increased urinary sugar level is always a reason for a doctor's visit. Whether it is a glucosuria can be determined by a few warning signs. Above all, an increased excretion of urine indicates an increased sugar level in the urine. If it is concomitant to poor eyesight or wound healing disorders, it is most likely a glucose series.
Other alarm signs are sensory disturbances and paralysis on the feet, which increase rapidly. In addition, most of the breath smells like acetone and it comes to tiredness and strong thirsty feelings. In the further course of the disease it comes increasingly to exhaustion symptoms and a strong weight loss. A visit to a doctor is recommended if one or more of these symptoms can be observed.
If the symptoms persist for longer than a few days, a physician must clarify the cause and initiate appropriate treatment. Diabetes patients and other high-risk groups such as pregnant women and the elderly should talk to the treating physician immediately if changes in urinary behavior or unusual physical symptoms occur. If sugar is treated early in the urine, further complications can be reliably avoided.
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Treatment & Therapy
The therapy of glucose in the urine usually begins with the treatment of corresponding causes. If glucosuria is based on diabetes, elevated blood sugar levels can be counteracted, for example, by measures such as consistent nutrition or medication (such as the administration of insulin).
Which therapy concept is individually suitable depends, among other things, on the form of an existing diabetes. In some cases, glucosuria occurs only temporarily and does not always require medical treatment. This can be the case, for example, in the case of pregnancy: in pregnant women, the renal threshold is often lowered, so that the capacity of the kidney is lower to utilize glucose from the blood.
So it comes faster to glucose in the urine. After pregnancy, however, the renal threshold rises again and the glucosuria often forms independently on its own. Depending on the form of renal causes of uric acid, this can be counteracted therapeutically, for example, by means of medical or surgical procedures; Successful therapy usually has a positive effect on glucosuria.
Outlook & Forecast
Depending on the underlying disease, the increased blood sugar level is treated with different therapeutic approaches, with the prognosis in most cases being positive. Depending on whether the kidneys are involved or not, various complications can occur that affect individual chances of recovery.
In a mild disease, most patients notice no symptoms at all. In some cases, urine sugar occurs only temporarily, for example during pregnancy, and then regresses. This form of sugar in the urine does not always have to be treated.
Successful therapies of dysfunction and kidney disease also have a positive effect on the course of the disease in glucosuria.
For diabetes mellitus there are individual therapeutic approaches with which the patients can live a largely symptom-free life. The diabetes itself will last a lifetime, but the symptoms are treated so far that the prognosis is favorable for the patients.
Complications may include wound healing disorders, blurred vision and sugar deposits on the vessel walls. This can lead to a lack of blood supply to the affected organs and to a closure. In the worst case it comes to kidney failure. However, these serious health problems usually only occur if no treatment has been initiated. Positive effects include measures such as a change in diet and sufficient exercise.
Urinary sugar can be prevented, for example, by regular check-ups at the doctor. Frequently, such possible diseases or impairments of function, which can lead to glucose in the urine, can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. In the case of underlying diseases, consistent treatment measures can prevent the onset / worsening of glucosuria.
You can do that yourself
An increased amount of sugar in the urine usually occurs as a concomitant of renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus. Both diseases need to be medically treated. Nevertheless, sufferers can do some self-help to support their body.
If diabetes is present, it is necessary to lower the blood sugar level and avoid excessive fluctuations. A change in diet is fundamental for this. Sugar should be avoided. Recommended is the use of xylitol. With identical sweetness, the birch sugar causes only a minimal increase in blood sugar. Also, the consumption of fruit is to be kept in moderation due to the contained fructose. The proportion of fresh vegetables, however, should be increased. When taking carbohydrates, whole grains should be preferred. The multiple sugars are split more slowly, so the blood sugar level rises slowly.
Lowering blood sugar also has regular exercise and sufficient sleep. In the case of gestational diabetes, the stabilization of blood sugar levels is also strongly recommended and can be easily achieved by a conscious diet.
A kidney insufficiency caused by heavy metal pollution can be countered with the help of diversion cures. An important component is the colon cleansing and rehabilitation and a subsequent discharge, for example, by the ingestion of algae pellets (Chlorella). Also on the daily amount of drinking is important. A sufficient amount of still water or unsweetened herbal tea flushes through the urinary tract and stimulates the metabolism. Caution is advised in the case of existing kidney disease and consultation with the attending physician is recommended.