Proteins are complex protein molecules that are arranged in a solid structure. Your new formation in cells will Protein synthesis called.
Proteins can consist of several thousand amino acids. They are indispensable building blocks of all living organisms.
Proteins are complex protein molecules that are arranged in a solid structure. Their formation in cells is called protein biosynthesis.
Proteins are synthesized from amino acids in a complex, biochemical process. This takes place on the ribosomes of a cell. Although a protein has a complex structure, the ribosome receives the exact information in which order the amino acids have to be linked together.
The information about the structure of the protein is stored in the DNA. A human gene consists of 23 chromosomes in duplicate, with the exception of the male Y chromosome. Each chromosome thus has two or one long DNA thread. With the help of proteins, it is wound up in a complex process in a fixed shape (double helix).
Humans have around 25,000 genes, so around 1,000 genes are stored on one chromosome. Usually one gene is responsible for the synthesis of a protein. In order for a protein to be synthesized, the protein's DNA must be transported from the nucleus to the ribosomes.
To do this, the body makes a copy of the gene, called messenger RNA or mRNA. This copy migrates to the ribosomes in the cell plasma and is encoded there. The ribosomes attach themselves to the chromosome strand and produce the new protein molecules. This process is called translation. Now the protein chain unfolds into its final shape and separates from the ribosomes.
In protein biosynthesis, the complete genetic code of an amino acid chain is translated and converted into a three-dimensional structure. This process is controlled by the genome of the cell nucleus.
Protein biosynthesis is vital because proteins influence almost all processes in the human body. You are also responsible for our appearance.
The protein structure is genetically determined. Ribosomes don't work like machines and sometimes even follow random reaction pathways. Although chance plays a role in individual reaction steps, ribosomes still work extremely reliably and hardly ever incorporate wrong amino acids into the chain.
Proteins are found in all tissue structures and body fluids as elementary building blocks of the organism. The permanent supply of proteins is necessary to maintain the body substance, in which permanent degradation and remodeling processes take place, for healing, reproduction and growth as well as for the production of structures.
Strength athletes hope to use dietary proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in the muscles and to be able to build more muscles. The availability of amino acids can stimulate protein synthesis, but opinions differ on the extent to which this takes place. However, it has been proven that the healthy body can cope with stressful situations less well as muscle mass decreases.
However, creating a permanent supply of amino acids to improve performance is still controversial, because if the concentration of amino acids in the blood is very high over a longer period of time, the body simply switches off protein synthesis. In order to achieve an increase in muscle mass, time is more important than the amount of protein.
Growth factors such as insulin influence protein biosynthesis because they can stimulate the uptake of amino acids. These performance-enhancing drugs are prohibited as doping in competitive sports.
The complex process of protein synthesis is prone to failure. Aging and disease are the major influencers of protein synthesis. The correct position and the orderly advancement of the transfer RNA (translocation) are particularly important for the smooth running of the synthesis. If there are impairments, health is at risk, because microorganisms now have an easy time of it. Many diseases are associated with influencing protein biosynthesis, for example through the activity of enzymes.
One focus of medical research relates to structural knowledge about the function and binding sites of antibiotics. The latest antibiotics act directly on the ribosomes on protein synthesis. The antibiotic disrupts synthesis by docking directly to the ribosomes to kill unwanted pathogens on the spot.
Amino acids stimulate the formation of mitochondria, the power plants of cells. Cells that consume a lot of energy, for example the skeletal and heart muscles, have a particularly large number of mitochondria.
Activity generates energy and stimulates metabolic processes. In degenerative muscle diseases, muscle movement is particularly important in order to activate protein synthesis. If protein production declines, the goal is often increased amino acid mobilization.
Hormones can also control the function of the muscle. Testosterone, for example, is known for its anabolic effects because it stimulates protein production and promotes muscle building.
Protein folding diseases prevent the correct folding of the protein thread and have serious consequences. A gene mutation is assumed to be the cause. Wrongly folded proteins cause different diseases, whereby the cells always respond with stress. Because the transaction is suppressed, there is an increased synthesis of harmful substances.
Even a vitamin deficiency can lead to disorders of protein synthesis. Among the vitamins, vitamin B6 has the greatest influence on protein synthesis. A deficiency causes nerve damage, skin changes, growth disorders and muscle wasting.
Liver inflammation and liver cirrhosis are known as acquired disorders of protein biosynthesis. The inflammation leads to changes in the amino acid sequence. Errors in transcription or translation as well as serious infectious diseases can also cause misfolding.
Today biochemists are trying to calculate the dynamics of protein synthesis in order to be able to cure genetically caused diseases. These findings are in turn important for all cell processes.